This paper examines the emergence and acquisition of marked accusative objects (Differential Object Marking, DOM, Bossong, 1991) in the spontaneous production of seven early Spanish-English simultaneous bilinguals (henceforth, 2L1) with different linguistic environments. The main finding is that the 2L1 group examined did not acquire differentially marked objects in the period studied, up to 3;6, nor did they behave similarly to Spanish monolingual children (L1) acquiring DOM (Montrul, 2011; Rodríguez-Mondoñedo, 2008). The current results support previous claims that link protracted development and incomplete acquisition (Montrul, 2008; Montrul and Sánchez-Walker, 2013). Tentatively, this study concludes that under reduced input conditions, 2L1 develop core aspects of their language, such as accusative and dative structures, but cannot acquire language-specific properties, such as the acquisition of the [person] feature needed for DOM in Spanish.
(2009) Instructed L2 acquisition of Differential Object Marking in Spanish. In H. Campos, & D. Lardiere (Eds.), Little words. Their history, phonology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics and acquisition (pp. 199–210). Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.
(1973) A first language: The early stages. London: George Allen & Unwin.
(1995) The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
(2002) El avance diacrónico de la marcación prepositiva en objetos directos inanimados. In A. Bernabé, J.A. Berenguer, M. Cantarero, & J.C. de Torres (Eds.), Presente y futuro de la lingüística en España, Vol. II1. (pp. 146–154). Madrid: SEL.
De Houwer, A.
(2009) Bilingualism first language acquisition. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Deuchar, M., & Quay, S.
(2000) Bilingual acquisition: Theoretical implications of a case study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2013) Object shift in Romance. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 311: 409–451.
(2009) The Acquisition of the personal preposition a by Catalan-Spanish and English-Spanish bilinguals. In J. Collentineet al. (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 11th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 81–92). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
(2012) The acquisition of interpretable features in L2 Spanish: Personal a. Bilingualism, Language and Cognition, 15(4), 701–720.
(2009) Some thoughts on the contrastive analysis of features in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 25(2), 173–227. DOI:
(2008) Feature assembly in second language acquisition. The role of formal features in second language acquisition, 106–140.
(2004) Specificity and differential object marking in Spanish. Catalan Journal of Linguistics, 31, 75–114.
Liceras, J.M., Fernández Fuertes, R., Perales, S., Pérez-Tattam, R., & Spradlin, K.
(2008) Gender and gender agreement in bilingual native and non-native grammars: A view from child and adult functional-lexical mixings. Lingua, 118 (6), 827–851.
López Ornat, S.
(1994) La adquisición de la lengua Española. Madrid: Siglo XXI.
(2000) The CHILDES project: Tools for analyzing talk. Third Edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2012) The acquisition of Differential Object Marking in L2 Spanish learners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
(1989) Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In K. Hyltenstam, & L.K. Obler (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan: Aspects of acquisition, maturity and loss (pp. 13–40). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2007) The syntax of objects: Agree and differential object marking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut.
(2008) The acquisition of differential object marking in Spanish. Probus, 201, 111–145.
(2007) Heritage speaker competence differences, language change and input type: Inflected infinitives in heritage Brazilian Portuguese. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(4), 359–389.
(2007) Child language: The parametric approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snyder, W., & Lillo-Martin, D.
(2001) On the acquisition of Spanish goal PPs. Paper presented at 4th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
(2005) Syntactic optionality at interfaces. In L. Cornips, & K. Corrigan (Eds.), Syntax and variation: Reconciling the biological and the social (pp. 46–111). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sorace, A., & Filiaci, F.
(2006) Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian. Second Language Research, 221, 339–368.
(1998) The dependencies of objects. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
(1999) El complemento directo preposicional. In I. Bosque, & V. Demonte (Eds.), Gramática Descriptiva de la lengua española, vol. 21 (pp. 1779–1806). Madrid: Espasa Calpe.
Tsimpli, I., & Sorace, A.
(2006) Differentiating interfaces: L2 performance in syntax–semantics and syntax–discourse phenomena. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 653–664). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
von Heusinger, K.
(2008) Verbal semantics and the diachronic development of Differential Object Marking in Spanish. Probus, 20(1), 1–31.
Nediger, Will, Acrisio Pires & Pedro Guijarro-Fuentes
2019. Integrating Linguistic Theory and Experimentation in L2 Acquisition: Learning of Spanish Differential Object Marking by Portuguese and English speakers
. Applied Linguistics Review 10:2 ► pp. 219 ff.
Park-Johnson, Sunny K.
2019. Case Ellipsis: Acquisition of Variability by Young Heritage Speakers of Korean. International Multilingual Research Journal 13:1 ► pp. 15 ff.
2018. On Convergence, Ongoing Language Change, and Crosslinguistic Influence in Direct Object Expression in Catalan–Spanish Bilingualism. Languages 3:2 ► pp. 14 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 29 october 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.