This chapter presents a general description of North American Icelandic (NA Icelandic), a heritage language spoken by a few hundred speakers in language conclaves in the Northern Plains of the United States and Canada. The description is mainly based on studies of the development of Icelandic as a heritage language in intense contact with English in North America (Arnbjörnsdóttir 2006). Generalizations about features of the NA Icelandic lexicon, morpho-syntax and phonology are presented in an effort to lay the groundwork for the next stage of NA Icelandic heritage linguistics. Finally, a possible future research agenda for NA Icelandic is outlined that is in line with the recent discussion about the importance of heritage languages for our understanding of the acquisition and loss of language (Benmamoun et al. 2010).
2006“Incomplete Acquisition: American Russian.”Journal of Slavic Linguistics 14: 191–262.
2008“Gender Under Incomplete Acquisition: Heritage Speakers’ Knowledge of Noun Categorization.”Heritage Language Journal 6(1): 1–33.
2011“Reanalysis in Adult Heritage Language.”Studies in Second Language Acquisition 33: 305–328.
Putnam, Michael and Birna Arnbjörnsdóttir
2015“Anaphoric Binding in North American Icelandic.” In Moribund Germanic Heritage Languages in North America. Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings, ed. by B. Richard Page and Michael T. Putnam, 203–223. Leiden: Brill.
1984Viðtöl við Vestur-Íslendinga. Unpublished interviews. University of Manitoba.
1903“English Loan-Nouns Used in the Icelandic Colony of North Dakota.”Dialect Notes 2: 354–362.
Viðarsson, Heimir Freyr
2009“Tilbrigði í fallmörkun aukafallsfrumlags – Þágufallshneigð í forníslenksu.”Íslenskt mál 31: 15–66.
Westergaard, Marit and Merete Anderssen
This volume. “Word order variation in Norwegian possessive constructions: Bilingual acquisition and attrition.”
Cited by 8 other publications
2018. The Intonation of Polar Questions in North American (“Heritage”) Icelandic. Journal of Germanic Linguistics 30:3 ► pp. 213 ff.
Dehé, Nicole & Tanja Kupisch
2022. Prepositional phrases and case in North American (heritage) Icelandic. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 45:3 ► pp. 254 ff.
Johannessen, Janne Bondi
2018. Factors of variation, maintenance and change in Scandinavian heritage languages. International Journal of Bilingualism 22:4 ► pp. 447 ff.
Johannessen, Janne Bondi & Joseph Salmons
2021. Germanic Heritage Varieties in the Americas. In The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics, ► pp. 252 ff.
Kasstan, Jonathan R, Anita Auer & Joseph Salmons
2018. Heritage-language speakers: Theoretical and empirical challenges on sociolinguistic attitudes and prestige. International Journal of Bilingualism 22:4 ► pp. 387 ff.
Putnam, Michael T., Lara Schwarz & Andrew D. Hoffman
2021. Morphology of Heritage Languages. In The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics, ► pp. 613 ff.
[no author supplied]
2021. Heritage Languages around the World. In The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics, ► pp. 11 ff.
[no author supplied]
2021. Grammatical Aspects of Heritage Languages. In The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics, ► pp. 579 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 16 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.