Subject index

Entries which lead directly to an article appear in red, and are followed by the author's name.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X

A

Abduction   see Grounded theory; Language change

Academic concept   see Vygotsky

Academic language   see Applied linguistics

Acceptability   see Generative semantics

Accessibility   see Anaphora

Accommodation   see Contact; Presupposition

Accommodation theory (Coupland)    see also Adaptability; Age and language use; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Context and contextualization; Social psychology

Accounting   see Collaboration in dialogues; Social psychology

Acoustics   see Sound symbolism

Action   see Action theory; Agency and language; Austin; Bühler; Cognitive psychology; Ethnomethodology; Intentionality; Nexus analysis; Perception and language; Philosophy of action; Speech act theory

Action theory (Allwood)    see also Agency and language; Grounded theory; Philosophy of action

Activation   see Relational ritual

Activity   see Action theory

Adaptability (Verschueren & Brisard)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Evolutionary pragmatics

Adjacency pair   see Prosody; Sequence

Adjective   see Experimental pragmatics

Adjunct control   see Control phenomena

Adorno, T.   see Critical theory

Affect   see Appraisal; Computational pragmatics; Discourse analysis; Emotion display; Emphasis; Interpreter-mediated interaction; Laughter; Overlap; Text and discourse linguistics; Think-aloud protocols

Affiliation/disaffiliation   see Affect

Affirmation   see Negation

Age and language use (Englert & Engbersen)    see also ‘Other’ representation

Ageism   see Age and language use

Agency and language (Ahearn)    see also Action theory; Case and semantic roles; Computational pragmatics; Intentionality; Metapragmatics; Motivation and language

Agreement   see Therapeutic conversation

Aisatsu (Ide)

Aktionsart   see Tense and aspect

Allegory   see Conceptual integration

Ambiguity   see Indeterminacy and negotiation; Mental spaces; Polysemy; Sound symbolism; Truthfulness

Amerindian languages   see Anthropological linguistics; Boas

Analysis   see Analytical philosophy

Analytical philosophy (Sbisà)    see also Austin; Conversational implicature; Hermeneutics; Philosophy of language; Speech act theory; Truth-conditional semantics; Wittgenstein

Anaphora (De Mulder)    see also Grounding; Indexicals and demonstratives; Tense and aspect

Animal communication   see Adaptability; Communication; Primate communication

Annotation   see Corpus analysis; Corpus pragmatics

Antecedent   see Anaphora

Anthropological linguistics (Blount)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Cognitive anthropology; Componential analysis; Context and contextualization; Ethnography of speaking; Fieldwork; Gumperz; Hermeneutics; Intercultural communication; Language ideologies; Malinowski; Metalinguistic awareness; Metapragmatics; Nexus analysis; Phatic communion; Sapir; Sociolinguistics; Taxonomy; Truthfulness; Whorf

Anti-language   see Jargon

Apel, K. O.   see Universal and transcendental pragmatics

Aphasia   see Adaptability; Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Neurolinguistics

Apology   see Corpus pragmatics; Mediated performatives

Appeal   see Functions of language

Applied linguistics (Gunnarsson)    see also Forensic linguistics; Intercultural communication; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Sociolinguistics

Appraisal (White)    see also Emphasis

Appreciation   see Appraisal; Ọmọlúàbí

Appropriateness   see Creativity in language use

Arbitrariness   see Adaptability; Iconicity; Sound symbolism; Structuralism

Areal linguistics   see Contact linguistics; Language change

Argument structure   see Dependency

Argumentation   see Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Argumentation theory; Rhetoric

Argumentation in discourse and grammar (Piazza & Green)    see also Argumentation theory

Argumentation theory (van Eemeren & Grootendorst)    see also Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Rhetoric

Articulation   see Humboldt; Sound symbolism

Artificial intelligence (Gillis, Daelemans & De Smedt)    see also Cognitive psychology; Cognitive science; Communication; Computational linguistics; Connectionism; Context and contextualization; Frame analysis; Frame semantics; Speech act theory

Artificial life   see Language acquisition

Ascription   see Functional discourse grammar

Aspect   see Markedness; Tense and aspect

Assertion   see Austin; Speech act theory

Assimilation   see Language rights

Asymmetric interaction   see Applied linguistics; Communicative success vs. failure; Computer-mediated communication; Conversation types; Frame analysis; Mass media

Attention and language (Stamenov & Andonova)

Attitude   see Appraisal; Dialectology; Social psychology

Attribution theory   see Social psychology

Audience   see Hearer

Audience design   see Recipient design

Audience effect   see Primate communication

Augmentative   see Morphopragmatics

Austin, J. L. (Sbisà)    see also Analytical philosophy; Communicative success vs. failure; Contextualism; Grice; Speech act theory

Authenticity (Gill)    see also Reported speech

Authier-Revuz, J.   see Énonciation

Authority (Wilson)    see also Honorifics

Authorship   see Experimental pragmatics; Forensic linguistics

Autism   see Clinical pragmatics; Conceptual integration

Automata theory   see Computational linguistics

Automaticity   see Think-aloud protocols

Autonomous vs. non-autonomous syntax (Nuyts)    see also Chomskyan linguistics; Functionalism vs. formalism; Structuralism

Awareness   see Metalinguistic awareness

Axiology   see Morris


B

Baby talk   see Motherese

Back channel cue   see Listener response

Background information   see Cognitive science; Collaboration in dialogues; Common ground; Communication; Context and contextualization; Discourse analysis; Text and discourse linguistics

Backgrounding   see Grounding

Bakhtin, M. M. (Björklund)    see also Collaboration in dialogues; Dialogical analysis; Genre; Ideology; Intertextuality; Polyphony; Reported speech

Bally, C.   see Énonciation

Basilect   see Creole linguistics

Bateson, G. (Servais)    see also Communication

Behaviorism (De Mey)    see also Cognitive psychology; Grice; Morris; Objectivism vs. subjectivism

Benveniste, E. (Van Hecke)    see also Énonciation

Bernstein, B.   see Applied linguistics; Communicative success vs. failure

Bilingual interactive activation (BIA)   see The multilingual lexicon

Bilingualism and multilingualism (Heller & Pavlenko)    see also Accommodation theory; Anthropological linguistics; Borrowing; Code-switching; Contact; Contact linguistics; Developmental psychology; Intercultural communication; Language contact; Language dominance and minorization; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Social psychology; Sociolinguistics; The multilingual lexicon

Binding   see Anaphora

Biodiversity   see Language ecology

Biology   see Morris

Biosemiotics   see Communication

Boas, F. (Darnell)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Culture; Fieldwork; Sapir; Typology; Whorf

Bootstrapping   see Language acquisition

Borrowing (Treffers-Daller)    see also Contact; Interjections; Language contact

Bourdieu, P. (Blommaert)    see also Social institutions

Brain   see Clinical pragmatics; Neurolinguistics; Neuropragmatics

Brain imaging   see Cerebral representation of language; Cognitive science; Language acquisition; Neurolinguistics; Neuropragmatics; Perception and language; Psycholinguistics

Bureaucratic language   see Applied linguistics

Business communication   see Communication

Bühler, K. (Musolff)    see also Phatic communion


C

Caretaker discourse   see Age and language use

Carnap, R.   see Analytical philosophy; Intensional logic

Carnival(esque)   see Bakhtin; Intertextuality

Cartesian philosophy   see Chomskyan linguistics

Case and semantic roles (Rudzka-Ostyn)    see also Agency and language; Case grammar; Cognitive grammar; Cognitive linguistics; Dependency and valency grammar; Functional grammar; Role and reference grammar

Case grammar (Anderson)    see also Case and semantic roles; Construction grammar; Dependency and valency grammar; Frame semantics; Functional grammar; Role and reference grammar

Catastrophe theory (Wildgen)

Categorial imperative   see Truthfulness

Categorization (Rosch)    see also Adaptability; Cognitive grammar; Cognitive linguistics; Language dominance and minorization; Polysemy

Causality (Vandepitte)

Centering theory   see Tense and aspect

Cerebral division of labour in verbal communication (Paradis)

Cerebral representation of language   see Cerebral division of labour in verbal communication; Neurolinguistics

Channel (Slembrouck)    see also Computer-mediated communication; Conversation types; Discourse analysis; Literacy; Mass media; Non-verbal communication; Politeness

Chaos theory   see Catastrophe theory

Chat   see Computer-mediated communication

Child language   see Ellipsis; Language acquisition

‘CHILDES’   see Language acquisition

Choice-making   see Adaptability

Chomskyan linguistics (van Riemsdijk)    see also Autonomous vs. non-autonomous syntax; Interpretive semantics; Language acquisition; Mentalism

Chronometric studies   see Psycholinguistics

Chronotope   see Bakhtin

Cicourel, A. V.   see Cognitive sociology

Class   see Social class and language

Classification1   see Typology

Classification2   see Taxonomy

Classroom interaction   see Applied linguistics; Communicative success vs. failure; Language learning in immersion and CLIL classrooms

Clause structure   see Attention and language; Control phenomena; Role and reference grammar

Clinical pragmatics (Perkins)    see also Cerebral representation of language; Perception and language

Co-ordination   see Cognitive psychology; Ellipsis

Code   see Metalinguistic awareness; Register; Semiotics

Code-switching (Auer & Eastman)    see also Bilingualism and multilingualism; Borrowing; Contact linguistics; Language contact

Codemixing   see Code-switching

Coding   see Bateson

Cognate   see The multilingual lexicon

Cognition   see Adaptability; Language acquisition

Cognitive anthropology (Levinson)    see also Anthropological linguistics

Cognitive grammar (Langacker)    see also Case and semantic roles; Cognitive linguistics; Metaphor

Cognitive linguistics (Geeraerts)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Attention and language; Case and semantic roles; Cognitive grammar; Cognitive science; Embodiment; Hermeneutics; Mental spaces

Cognitive pragmatics   see Clinical pragmatics; Philosophy of mind

Cognitive psychology (Caron)    see also Artificial intelligence; Behaviorism; Clinical pragmatics; Cognitive science; Comprehension vs. production; Connectionism; Developmental psychology; Experimentation; Frame semantics; Intentionality; Perception and language; Psycholinguistics

Cognitive science (Coulson)    see also Artificial intelligence; Cognitive linguistics; Cognitive psychology; Connectionism; Context and contextualization; Experimentation; Grice; Mentalism; Perception and language; Philosophy of mind

Cognitive semantics   see Cognitive science; Componential analysis; Conceptual semantics; Frame semantics; Lexical semantics

Cognitive sociology (Saferstein)    see also Discourse analysis; Emphasis; Ethnomethodology; Sociolinguistics; Symbolic interactionism

Cohesion and coherence (Bublitz)    see also Communicative success vs. failure; Computational pragmatics; Discourse analysis; Ellipsis; Frame analysis; Systemic functional grammar; Tense and aspect; Text and discourse linguistics

Collaboration in dialogues (Aronsson)    see also Common ground; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Listener response

Colligation   see Collocation and colligation; Metaphor

Collocation and colligation (Lehecka)

Colonization   see Language dominance and minorization

Color terms   see Anthropological linguistics; Lexical semantics; Perception and language

Commodification   see Ideology

Common ground (Allan)    see also Cognitive science; Collaboration in dialogues; Communication; Context and contextualization; Discourse analysis; Text and discourse linguistics

Common sense   see Ethnomethodology

Communication (Harder)    see also Common ground

Communication disorders   see Language disorders

Communication failure   see Applied linguistics

Communicational dialectology   see Dialectology

Communicative competence   see Ethnography of speaking; Gumperz; Linguistic explanation; Motivation

Communicative dynamism (Firbas)    see also Functional sentence perspective; Word order; Ọmọlúàbí

Communicative effect   see Interlanguage pragmatics

Communicative style (Selting)    see also Cultural scripts; Non-verbal communication; Register

Communicative success vs. failure (Good)

Community of practice   see Social class and language

Comparative method   see Contrastive analysis

Competence vs. performance   see Cerebral representation of language; Chomskyan linguistics

Complement control   see Control phenomena

Compliment   see Corpus pragmatics

Componential analysis (Goddard)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Cultural scripts; Generative semantics; Lexical field analysis; Lexical semantics; Structuralism

Comprehension vs. production (Cutting)    see also Cohesion and coherence; Communication; Irony; Mediated performatives; Psycholinguistics; Speech act theory; Text comprehension

Compression   see Conceptual integration

Computational linguistics (De Roeck)    see also Artificial intelligence; Discourse analysis; Lexical functional grammar

Computational pragmatics (Jokinen & De Smedt)

Computer communication   see Artificial intelligence; Computational pragmatics

Computer corpora   see Notation Systems in Spoken Language Corpora

Computer modeling   see Cognitive science

Computer programming   see Artificial intelligence

Computer-mediated communication (Georgakopoulou)    see also Computational pragmatics; Literacy

Conceptual blending   see Conceptual integration; Metaphor

Conceptual dependency theory   see Artificial intelligence

Conceptual integration (Oakley)

Conceptual metaphor theory   see Metaphor

Conceptual semantics (Nikanne)    see also Interpretive semantics

Conceptual vs. linguistic representation   see Cognitive anthropology; Cognitive psychology

Conceptualization   see Cognitive grammar; Cognitive linguistics

Condition of satisfaction   see Intentionality

Conflict talk   see Applied linguistics

Connectionism (Weijters & van den Bosch)    see also Artificial intelligence; Cognitive psychology; Cognitive science; Language acquisition; Psycholinguistics

Connectivity   see Cohesion and coherence

Connotation   see Cerebral representation of language

Consciousness and language (Chafe)    see also Attention and language; Folk pragmatics; Metapragmatics; Participation; Perception and language

Considerateness   see Tact

Consistency-checking device   see Manipulation

Construction grammar (Kay)    see also Case grammar; Emergent grammar; Frame semantics; Word order

Constructional analysis (Nikiforidou)    see also Collocation and colligation; Construction grammar; Constructional analysis

Constructionism   see Applied linguistics; Argumentation theory; Cognitive anthropology; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Developmental psychology; Intercultural communication; Narrative; Social institutions

Constructivism   see Constructionism

Contact (Wei)    see also Bilingualism and multilingualism; Contact linguistics; Creole linguistics; Creoles and creolization; Language change; Language contact

Contact linguistics (Meeuwis & Östman)    see also Bilingualism and multilingualism; Contact; Creole linguistics; Creoles and creolization; Dialectology; Intercultural communication; Interjections; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Sociolinguistics; Speech community; Typology; Variational pragmatics

Context and contextualization (Auer)    see also Accommodation theory; Aisatsu; Anthropological linguistics; Artificial intelligence; Bateson; Cerebral representation of language; Cognitive science; Cohesion and coherence; Common ground; Communication; Communicative style; Computational pragmatics; Contextualism; Conversation analysis; Conversation types; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Dialogical analysis; Discourse markers; Ellipsis; Emphasis; Ethnography of speaking; Ethnomethodology; Evolutionary pragmatics; Experimental pragmatics; Firthian linguistics; Frame analysis; Generative semantics; Goffman; Gumperz; Impoliteness; Indexicals and demonstratives; Integrational linguistics; Intensional logic; Interactional sociolinguistics; Intercultural communication; Intertextuality; Laughter; Literary pragmatics; Metalinguistic awareness; Model-theoretic semantics; Motivation and language; Narrative; Notation in formal semantics; Politeness; Polysemy; Presupposition; Prosody; Rhetoric; Symbolic interactionism; Text comprehension; Truthfulness; Énonciation

Context change   see Context and contextualization

Context modelling   see Formal pragmatics

Context-of-situation   see Context and contextualization; Firthian linguistics; Malinowski; Register; Systemic functional grammar

Context-sensitive vs. context-free grammar   see Computational linguistics; Functional sentence perspective

Context-sensitiveness   see Context and contextualization

Contextualism (Bianchi)    see also Context and contextualization

Contextualization cue   see Gumperz

Continuity   see Historical politeness

Continuity hypothesis   see Language acquisition

Contrast   see Functional discourse grammar

Contrastive analysis (Jaszczolt)    see also Developmental psychology; Error analysis; Historical politeness; Intercultural communication; Interlanguage pragmatics; Language change; Pragmatic markers

Contrastive pragmatics (Verschueren)    see also Contrastive pragmatics; Ethnography of speaking; Intercultural communication; Interlanguage pragmatics; Translation studies; Typology; Variational pragmatics

Control   see Public discourse; Social institutions

Control phenomena (Lyngfelt)

Conventional implicature   see Grice; Implicitness

Conventionality   see Adaptability; Conventions of language; Metaphor; Primate communication; Speech act theory

Conventions of language (Gu)    see also Austin; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Grice; Speech act

Convergence   see Accommodation theory; Contact

Conversation   see Collaboration in dialogues; Conversation analysis; Humor; Indeterminacy and negotiation; Mass media; Narrative

Conversation analysis (Hutchby & Drew)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Age and language use; Communication; Communicative success vs. failure; Computational pragmatics; Context and contextualization; Conversation types; Discourse analysis; Discourse markers; Emphasis; Ethnography of speaking; Ethnomethodology; Forensic linguistics; Goffman; Gumperz; Hermeneutics; Humor; Interactional linguistics; Interactional sociolinguistics; Intertextuality; Laughter; Listener response; Mass media; Notation Systems in Spoken Language Corpora; Overlap; Prosody; Repair; Sacks; Sequence; Social psychology; Therapeutic conversation; Transcription systems for spoken discourse

Conversation types (Hakulinen)

Conversational implicature (Lakoff)    see also Analytical philosophy; Clinical pragmatics; Context and contextualization; Conversational logic; Ellipsis; Experimental pragmatics; Grice; Implicature and language change; Implicitness; Interlanguage pragmatics; Language and the law; Politeness; Relevance theory; Speech act theory; Truthfulness

Conversational logic (Lakoff)    see also Context and contextualization; Conversational implicature; Generative semantics; Grice; Philosophy of language; Relevance theory; Speech act theory

Conversational move   see Move

Cooperative principle   see Computational pragmatics; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Creativity in language use; Grice; Humor; Implicature and language change; Implicitness; Irony; Politeness; Silence; Truthfulness

Copenhagen circle   see Structuralism

Coreference   see Anaphora

Corpus analysis (Aarts)    see also Collocation and colligation; Corpus pragmatics; Discourse analysis; Language acquisition; Leech; Pragmatic markers; Psycholinguistics; Statistics; Structuralism; Text and discourse linguistics; Translation studies; Variational pragmatics

Corpus pragmatics (Jucker)    see also Corpus analysis

Correlational sociolinguistics (Dittmar)    see also Dialectology; Sociolinguistics; Statistics

Coseriu   see Structuralism

Courtroom conversation   see Forensic linguistics; Interpreter-mediated interaction; Language and the law

Creativity in language use (Pitzl)    see also Authenticity; Bühler; Cognitive science; Humboldt; Language acquisition; Think-aloud protocols

Creature construction   see Grice

Creole linguistics (Muysken)    see also Contact; Contact linguistics; Creoles and creolization; Historical linguistics; Sociolinguistics

Creoles and creolization (Mufwene)    see also Contact; Contact linguistics; Creole linguistics; Historical linguistics; Intercultural communication; Language contact; Sociolinguistics

Critical linguistics and critical discourse analysis (Wodak)    see also Discourse analysis; Emphasis; General semantics; Ideology; Intercultural communication; Intertextuality; Language ideologies; Manipulation; Marxist linguistics; Mass media; Nexus analysis; Polyphony; Text and discourse linguistics; Text linguistics; Truthfulness

Critical theory (Geldof)    see also Intercultural communication; Universal and transcendental pragmatics

Cross-cultural communication   see Intercultural communication

Cross-cultural pragmatics   see Discourse analysis; Listener response; Overlap

Cross-cultural psychology   see Cognitive anthropology; Developmental psychology

Cross-sectional method   see Developmental psychology

Crying   see Emotion display

Culioli, A.   see Énonciation

Cultural anthropology   see Anthropological linguistics; Cognitive anthropology

Cultural model   see Cognitive science

Cultural scripts (Goddard)    see also Communicative style; Componential analysis; Culture

Cultural studies   see Ethnography of speaking; Literary pragmatics; Translation studies

Culture (Sarangi)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Behaviorism; Boas; Context and contextualization; Contrastive analysis; Cultural scripts; Default interpretations; Ethnography; Evolutionary pragmatics; Fieldwork; Gumperz; Humboldt; Ideology; Intercultural communication; Interjections; Mentalism; Morphopragmatics; Objectivism vs. subjectivism; Politeness; Repair; Sapir; Semiotics; Sociolinguistics; Whorf; Ọmọlúàbí

Curse   see Impoliteness

Cynicism   see Irony


D

Data collection/coding/analysis   see Conversation analysis; Developmental psychology; Grounded theory; Historical pragmatics; Linguistic landscape studies; Statistics; Terms of address; Typology

Davidson, D.   see Analytical philosophy

Deception   see Truthfulness

Deconstruction (Schirato)    see also Literary pragmatics

Deduction   see Grounded theory

Default interpretations (Jaszczolt)

Default semantics   see Default interpretations

Deference   see Ọmọlúàbí

Definite articles   see Definiteness

Definite description   see Game-theoretical semantics; Reference and descriptions

Definiteness (Laury)

Degree   see Communicative dynamism

Deixis (Sidnell)    see also Bühler; Context and contextualization; Honorifics; Mental spaces; Non-verbal communication; Peirce; Politeness; Énonciation

Deletion   see Ellipsis

Dementia   see Clinical pragmatics

Demonstrative   see Indexicals and demonstratives

Denotation   see Cerebral representation of language; Polysemy

Deontic logic (Cornelis)    see also Epistemic logic; Logical semantics; Modal logic; Modality

Dependency   see Dependency and valency grammar; Frame semantics; Polysemy; Predicates and predication; Role and reference grammar

Dependency and valency grammar (Gebruers)    see also Case and semantic roles; Case grammar; Role and reference grammar

Derrida, J.   see Deconstruction

Detention hearing   see Police interrogation

Deutero-learning   see Bateson

Developmental dyslexia (Nijakowska)    see also Clinical pragmatics; Developmental psychology; Language acquisition; Literacy; Pragmatic acquisition; Psycholinguistics

Developmental psychology (Ervin-Tripp)    see also Bilingualism and multilingualism; Cognitive psychology; Psycholinguistics; Vygotsky

Dewey, J.   see Morris; Pragmatism

Diachrony   see Language change

Diacritic   see Phonetic notation systems

Dialect (Macaulay)    see also Dialectology; Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics; Folk pragmatics; Integrational linguistics

Dialect formation   see Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics

Dialect geography   see Dialectology

Dialect leveling/loss   see Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics

Dialectology (De Schutter)    see also Contact linguistics; Correlational sociolinguistics; Dialect; Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics; Historical linguistics; Reconstruction; Sociolinguistics

Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics (Vandekerckhove)

Dialog modeling   see Artificial intelligence; Computational pragmatics

Dialog system   see Artificial intelligence; Computational pragmatics

Dialogical analysis (Linell)    see also Collaboration in dialogues; Context and contextualization; Foucault; Humboldt; Interactional linguistics; Peirce

Dialogism   see Appraisal; Intertextuality

Dialogue   see Bakhtin; Collaboration in dialogue; Interpreter-mediated interaction; Polyphony

Diaphor   see Metaphor

Diglossia   see Language contact

Dik, S.   see Functional grammar

Diminutive   see Morphopragmatics

Direct vs. indirect speech   see Reported speech

Discourse   see Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Bakhtin; Cognitive sociology; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Discourse analysis; Discourse markers; Ethnography; Foucault; Grounding; Intertextuality; Mental spaces; Narrative; Neuropragmatics; Nexus analysis; Polyphony; Public discourse; Social institutions; Systemic functional grammar; Text and discourse linguistics; Text structure

Discourse act   see Functional discourse grammar

Discourse analysis (Östman & Virtanen)    see also Channel; Cognitive sociology; Common ground; Conversation analysis; Corpus analysis; Creole linguistics; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Geneva school; Grounding; Historical pragmatics; Ideology; Mass media; Multimodality; Prague school; Rhetoric; Social psychology; Structuralism; Stylistics; Text and discourse linguistics; Text linguistics; Truthfulness

Discourse attuning   see Accommodation theory

Discourse completion test   see Intercultural communication

Discourse focus   see Anaphora

Discourse genre   see Genre

Discourse linking   see Discourse representation theory

Discourse markers (Lenk)    see also Historical pragmatics; Interjections; Polyphony; Pragmatic markers; Pragmatic particles

Discourse mode   see Register

Discourse representation theory (Kamp)    see also Default interpretations; Game-theoretical semantics; Logical semantics; Montague and categorial grammar; Situation semantics; Tense and aspect

Discourse sociolinguistics   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

Discourse topic   see Consciousness and language

Discursive ethics   see Universal and transcendental pragmatics

Discursive formation   see Foucault

Discursive order   see Foucault

Discursive psychology   see Authority; Motivation

Dismissal   see Impoliteness

Displacement   see Adaptability

Divergence   see Accommodation theory

Doctor‒patient interaction   see Medical interaction

Document design   see Applied linguistics

Donnellan, K.   see Reference and descriptions

Double bind   see Bateson

Drift   see Language change

Ducrot, O.   see Argumentation theory; Polyphony; Énonciation

Dummett, M.   see Analytical philosophy

Dyadic interaction   see Conversation types; Statistics

Dynamic semantic functions   see Communicative dynamism

Dynamic semantics   see Presupposition

Dysphasia   see Cerebral representation of language


E

E-mail communication   see Computer-mediated communication

Ebonics   see ‘Other’ representation

Education   see Applied linguistics; Ideology; Language learning in immersion and CLIL classrooms; Language rights; Linguistic landscape studies; Literacy

Egocentric speech   see Vygotsky

Elicitation (Senft)    see also Fieldwork; Interview

Ellipsis (Wilson)

Embedding   see Frame analysis

Embodiment (Quaeghebeur)

Emergence   see Adaptability

Emergent grammar (Helasvuo)

Emotion   see Appraisal; Emotion display; Impoliteness

Emotion display (Koole)    see also Laughter; Silence

Emphasis (Lauerbach)

Endangered languages   see Language ecology

Engagement   see Appraisal; Nexus analysis

Engels, Friedrich   see Ideology

English (as a global language)   see Linguistic landscape studies

Énonciation (Johansson & Suomela-Salmi)    see also Benveniste

Entailment   see Implicitness

Entrenchment   see Conceptual integration

Enunciation   see Benveniste; Polyphony

Epiphor   see Metaphor

Epistemic dynamics   see Epistemic logic

Epistemic logic (Cornelis)    see also Deontic logic; Logical semantics; Modal logic; Modality; Possible worlds semantics

Epistemology (Buekens)    see also Austin; Foucault; Objectivism vs. subjectivism; Ontology; Perception and language

Epistemology of testimony (Faulkner)

Erklären vs. Verstehen   see Grounded theory

Error analysis (Ringbom)    see also Contrastive analysis

Ethnicity   see Culture; Humor; Intercultural communication; Language dominance and minorization; Language policy, language planning and standardization

Ethnographic semantics   see Anthropological linguistics; Taxonomy

Ethnography (Agar)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Bourdieu; Developmental psychology; Ethnography of speaking; Fieldwork; Linguistic landscape studies

Ethnography of communication   see Ethnography of speaking

Ethnography of speaking (Fitch & Philipsen)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Context and contextualization; Conversation analysis; Gumperz; Interactional sociolinguistics; Intercultural communication; Nexus analysis; Phatic communion

Ethnomethodology (Firth)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Cognitive sociology; Context and contextualization; Conversation analysis; Interactional sociolinguistics; Phenomenology; Sacks; Social psychology; Symbolic interactionism

Ethnoscience   see Anthropological linguistics

Ethogenics   see Social psychology

Euphemism   see Morphopragmatics

Evaluation   see Appraisal; Emphasis

Event-related potential   see Cognitive science; Language acquisition

Evidentiality   see Appraisal; Authority; Modality

Evolution (theory)   see Adaptability; Evolutionary pragmatics

Evolutionary pragmatics (Wildgen)

Executive function   see Clinical pragmatics

Exemplar model   see Psycholinguistics

Expectation   see Frame analysis; Mediated performatives

Experimental pragmatics (Noveck & Spotorno)    see also Experimentation

Experimentation (Sandra)    see also Cognitive psychology; Cognitive science; Ethnomethodology; Experimental pragmatics; Psycholinguistics; Sound symbolism; Statistics; Think-aloud protocols; Variational pragmatics

Expertise   see Cognitive sociology; Forensic linguistics

Explaining vs. understanding   see Erklären vs. Verstehen

Explanation   see Linguistic explanation

Explicature   see Implicitness

Expression   see Functions of language

Extension   see Intension vs. extension


F

Face   see Goffman; Impoliteness; Politeness; Silence

Face-to-face interaction   see Accommodation theory; Cognitive sociology; Computer-mediated communication; Conversation analysis; Intercultural communication; Prosody

False friends   see The multilingual lexicon

Familiarity   see Information structure

Feedback   see Adaptability

Feeling(s)   see Appraisal

Felicity condition   see Speech act theory

Ferguson, C.   see Register

Field   see Register

Fieldwork (Senft)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Boas; Elicitation; Ethnography; Ethnography of speaking; Interview; Malinowski

Figure vs. ground   see Grounding

Figures of speech (Kienpointner)    see also Cultural scripts; Emphasis

File change semantics   see Computational linguistics; Discourse representation theory

Fillmore, C. J.   see Case grammar; Frame semantics

Firth, J. R. (Shore)    see also Firthian linguistics; Register; Systemic functional grammar

Firthian linguistics (Östman & Simon-Vandenbergen)    see also Context and contextualization; Firth; Phatic communion; Systemic functional grammar

Flexibility   see Primate communication

Focalisation   see Tense and aspect

Focalizer   see Functional sentence perspective

Focus   see Topic vs. focus

Focus structure   see Role and reference grammar

Folk classification   see Anthropological linguistics; Cognitive anthropology; Language ideologies; Metalinguistic awareness; Taxonomy

Folk linguistics   see Socio-onomastics

Folk pragmatics (Niedzielski & Preston)

Folk psychology   see Philosophy of mind

Footing   see Frame analysis; Goffman; Participation

Foregrounding   see Grounding

Foreigner talk   see Intercultural communication; Register

Forensic linguistics (Carter)    see also Applied linguistics

Form vs. function   see Corpus pragmatics; Sapir

Form-function mapping   see Form vs. function

Formal dialectics   see Argumentation theory

Formal linguistics   see Linguistic explanation

Formal pragmatics (Bunt)    see also Analytical philosophy; Logical semantics; Montague and categorial grammar

Formality   see Conversation types; Register

Formulaic language   see Routine formula

Formulation   see Rhetoric

Foucault, M. (Rojo & Pujol)    see also Critical theory; Ideology; Jargon

Frame (analysis) (Telles Ribeiro & Hoyle)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Artificial intelligence; Bateson; Cognitive science; Emphasis; Frame semantics; Goffman; Humor; Mental spaces; Metalinguistic awareness; Non-verbal communication

Frame semantics (Petruck)    see also Collocation and colligation; Context and contextualization; Dependency and valency grammar; Lexical field analysis; Lexical semantics

Frankfurt school   see Adorno; Habermas

Frege, G.   see Analytical philosophy; Intensional logic; Reference and descriptions; Semantics vs. pragmatics; Speech act theory

Fremdverstehen   see Grounded theory

Frequency   see Markedness; Statistics

Functional discourse grammar (Hannay & Hengeveld)

Functional explanation   see Linguistic explanation

Functional grammar (Mackenzie)    see also Case and semantic roles; Case grammar; Mathesius; Prague school; Predicates and predication; Systemic functional grammar; Word order

Functional sentence perspective (Sgall)    see also Communicative dynamism; Mathesius; Prague school; Word order

Functionalism vs. formalism (Nuyts)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Autonomous vs. non-autonomous syntax; Cognitive science; Communicative dynamism; Emergent grammar; Linguistic explanation; Mathesius; Translation studies

Functions of language   see Bühler; Emotion display; Evolutionary pragmatics; Functional discourse grammar; Functionalism vs. formalism; Historical politeness; Impoliteness; Participation; Prague school; Relational ritual; Silence; Systemic functional grammar

Fund   see Predicates and predication

Fuzziness   see Vagueness

Fuzzy set theory   see Categorization; Lexical semantics


G

Game-theoretical semantics (De Mulder)    see also Discourse representation theory; Logical semantics; Model-theoretic semantics

Gapping   see Ellipsis

Garfinkel, H.   see Ethnomethodology

Gender (Lakoff)    see also Authority; Computer-mediated communication; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Interjections; Laughter; Listener response; Overlap; Silence

General rhetoric   see Rhetoric

General semantics (Allan)    see also Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

Generalized catastrophe   see Catastrophe theory

Generalized phrase structure grammar   see Computational linguistics; Construction grammar; Interpretive semantics

Generative semantics (McCawley)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Componential analysis; Conceptual semantics; Conversational logic; Interpretive semantics

Generative(-transformational) linguistics   see Attention and language; Chomskyan linguistics; Cognitive linguistics; Computational linguistics; Creativity in language use; Historical linguistics; Interpretive semantics; Language acquisition; Language change; Lexical semantics

Genetic linguistics   see Historical linguistics; Language change; Reconstruction

Geneva school (Roulet)    see also Discourse analysis; Structuralism

Genre (Solin)    see also Bakhtin; Channel; Conversation types; Conversational logic; Narrative; Tense and aspect; Text and discourse linguistics; Text type

Geographical origin   see Laughter

Geolinguistics   see Contact linguistics; Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics; Linguistic landscape studies

Gestalt psychology   see Behaviorism; Cognitive psychology; Metaphor

Gesture   see Communication; Non-verbal communication; Primate communication; Prosody

Given vs. new   see Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Computational pragmatics; Definiteness; Functional sentence perspective; Information structure; Word order

Globalization   see Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics; Language dominance and minorization

Glossematics   see Semiotics; Structuralism

Glottochronology   see Historical linguistics

Goffman, E. (O’Driscoll)    see also Conversation analysis; Frame analysis; Participation; Politeness; Public discourse; Reported speech; Symbolic interactionism

Government and binding theory   see Chomskyan linguistics; Construction grammar; Interpretive semantics

Gradience   see Categorization

Grammar   see Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Leech

Grammatical constraints   see Code-switching

Grammatical metaphor   see Metaphor

Grammatical relations   see Agency and language; Polysemy; Role and reference grammar

Grammatical status   see Grammaticalization and pragmatics

Grammaticalization   see Constructional analysis; Emergent grammar; Implicature and language change; Language change; Metaphor; Modality; Negation; Pragmatic markers; Predicates and predication

Grammaticalization and pragmatics (Boye & Harder)

Grammatization   see Emergent grammar

Gramsci, A.   see Marxist linguistics

Greeting   see Ọmọlúàbí

Grice, H. P. (Brisard)    see also Analytical philosophy; Clinical pragmatics; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Default interpretations; Humor; Semantics vs. pragmatics; Silence; Speech act theory; Truthfulness

Grounded theory (Dirks)

Grounding (Wårvik)    see also Anaphora; Computational pragmatics; Discourse analysis; Text and discourse linguistics

Guillaume, G.   see Énonciation

Gumperz, J. J. (Auer, Heller & Roberts)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Communicative success vs. failure; Culture; Ethnography of speaking; Interactional sociolinguistics; Intercultural communication; Prosody; Register


H

Habermas, J.   see Critical theory; Ideology; Public discourse; Universal and transcendental pragmatics

Habitus   see Bourdieu; Communication; Lifestyle

Half-truth   see Truthfulness

Halliday, M. A. K.   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Firthian linguistics; Genre; Jargon; Phatic communion; Register; Social semiotics; Systemic functional grammar

Harold Garfinkel and pragmatics (Watson)    see also Conversation analysis; Ethnomethodology; Harvey Sacks; Metapragmatics

Head-driven phrase structure grammar   see Computational linguistics; Construction grammar; Formal pragmatics; Interpretive semantics

Hearer   see Appraisal; Mass media

Hegemony   see Ideology; Intertextuality; Language ecology; Metalinguistic awareness

Hemisphere dominance   see Neurolinguistics

Hermeneutics (Van de Craen)    see also Analytical philosophy; Anthropological linguistics; Cognitive linguistics; Cohesion and coherence; Conversation analysis; Literary pragmatics; Structuralism; Truthfulness; Universal and transcendental pragmatics

Heterogeneity   see Language dominance and minorization

Heteroglossia   see Appraisal; Bakhtin; Ideology; Intertextuality

Heterosemy   see Polysemy

Historical linguistics (Goossens)    see also Borrowing; Creole linguistics; Creoles and creolization; Dialectology; Historical pragmatics; Language change; Reconstruction; Typology; de Saussure

Historical politeness (Z. Kádár)

Historical pragmatics (Jucker)    see also Discourse analysis; Historical linguistics; Interjections; Mass media

Historical sociolinguistics (Conde-Silvestre)    see also Correlational sociolinguistics; Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics; Historical linguistics; Historical pragmatics; Interactional sociolinguistics; Language change; Sociolinguistics

History   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Dialectology

Homogeneity   see Metalinguistic awareness

Homogenisation   see ‘Other’ representation

Homonymy   see Indeterminacy and negotiation; Polysemy

Honorifics (Irvine)    see also Politeness; Terms of address

Humboldt, W. von (Nerlich & Clarke)

Humor (Attardo)    see also Computer-mediated communication; Emotion display; Irony; Laughter; Truthfulness; ‘Other’ representation

Hybridity   see Genre; Intensional logic; Intertextuality; Presupposition; ‘Other’ representation

Hymes, D.   see Anthropological linguistics; Culture; Ethnography of speaking

Hyponymy   see Polysemy


I

I-principle   see Anaphora; Semantics vs. pragmatics

Iconicity (Tabakowska)    see also Language change; Sound symbolism

Identifiability   see Definiteness

Identity   see Age and language use; Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics; Gumperz; Laughter; Motivation and language; Social class and language; Variational pragmatics

Ideology (Määttä & Pietikäinen)    see also Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Culture; Honorifics; Manipulation; Marxist linguistics; Mass media; Public discourse; Social psychology; Social semiotics

Idiolect   see Forensic linguistics; Integrational linguistics

Idéologues   see Humboldt

Illiteracy   see Literacy

Illocution   see Functional discourse grammar; Functional grammar; Indeterminacy and negotiation; Intentionality; Modality; Non-verbal communication; Speech act theory

Illocutionary force   see Speech act theory

Illocutionary force-indicating device   see Corpus pragmatics; Speech act theory

Immersion   see Language learning in immersion and CLIL classrooms

Implicature and language change (Kearns)    see also Conventional implicature; Conversational implicature

Implicitness (Bertuccelli Papi)    see also Cerebral representation of language; Discourse markers; Emphasis

Impliciture   see Implicitness

Impoliteness (Culpeper)    see also Historical politeness; Politeness

Indeterminacy and negotiation (Zanotto & Melo Moura)    see also Ellipsis; Integrational linguistics; Truthfulness

Indexicalism   see Contextualism

Indexicality   see Ethnomethodology; Language change; Metalinguistic awareness; Prosody; Truth-conditional semantics

Indexicals and demonstratives (Corazza)    see also Anaphora; Context and contextualization

Indirectness   see Conversational logic; Discourse representation theory; Leech

Individuality   see Intentionality

Induction   see Grounded theory

Inequality   see Power

(In)felicity   see Communicative success vs. failure

Inferencing   see Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Cognitive psychology; Cognitive sociology; Computational pragmatics; Conceptual semantics; Default interpretations; Discourse representation theory; Ellipsis; Emphasis; Experimental pragmatics; Figures of speech; Grice; Gumperz; Implicature and language change; Irony; Prosody; Speech act theory

Informal logic   see Argumentation theory

Information processing   see Attention and language; Cognitive psychology; Cognitive science; Comprehension vs. production; Text comprehension

Information structure (Gundel & Fretheim)    see also Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Computational pragmatics; Discourse analysis; Discourse markers; Emphasis; Narrative; Signed language pragmatics; Tense and aspect; Text and discourse linguistics; Text structure; Word order

Informativeness   see Definiteness; Humor; Information structure; Presupposition

Informing   see Mediated performatives

Innateness   see Language acquisition

Inner speech   see Vygotsky

Institutional role   see Laughter

Institutional setting   see Social institutions

Instructional science   see Applied linguistics

Instrumentality   see Evolutionary pragmatics

Insult   see Impoliteness

Integration   see Language rights

Integrational linguistics (Harris)

Integrity   see Truthfulness

Intension vs. extension   see Intensional logic; Notation in formal semantics

Intensional logic (Gochet)    see also Logical semantics

Intensional semantics   see Analytical philosophy

Intention   see Artificial intelligence; Computational pragmatics; Grice; Intentionality; Irony; Mediated performatives; Neuropragmatics; Philosophy of action; Philosophy of mind; Primate communication; Speech act theory; Truthfulness

Intentionality (Nuyts)    see also Agency and language; Communication; Impoliteness; Philosophy of mind

Interaction-organization theory   see Metaphor

Interactional analysis   see Multimodality

Interactional linguistics (Lindström)    see also Emergent grammar

Interactional sense-making   see Meaning construction

Interactional sociolinguistics (Verschueren)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Code-switching; Communicative style; Context and contextualization; Conversation analysis; Ethnography of speaking; Ethnomethodology; Gumperz; Intercultural communication; Metapragmatics; Nexus analysis; Sociolinguistics

Interactive failure   see Communication failure

Interactive-activation model   see Psycholinguistics

Interactivity   see Computer-mediated communication; Deixis; Functional discourse grammar; Psycholinguistics; Reported speech

Intercultural communication (Hinnenkamp)    see also Aisatsu; Anthropological linguistics; Applied linguistics; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Code-switching; Communication; Communicative success vs. failure; Contact linguistics; Context and contextualization; Contrastive analysis; Creoles and creolization; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Critical theory; Culture; Ethnography of speaking; Gumperz; Interactional sociolinguistics; Interlanguage pragmatics; Language and the law; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Non-verbal communication; Text and discourse linguistics; Truthfulness

Intercultural politeness research ()

Interference   see Contact linguistics; Language contact; Psycholinguistics

Interjections (Ameka & Wilkins)

Interlanguage pragmatics (Kasper)    see also Contrastive analysis; Conversational implicature; Intercultural communication; Politeness

Internalization   see Foucault

Internet   see Computer-mediated communication

Interpersonal relation   see Intentionality

Interpreter-mediated interaction (Wadensjö)

Interpretive processes   see Inferencing

Interpretive semantics (Nikanne)    see also Chomskyan linguistics; Conceptual semantics; Generative semantics

Interpretive sociolinguistics   see Interactional sociolinguistics

Interruption   see Overlap

Intersubjectivity   see Appraisal; Bourdieu; Bühler; Collaboration in dialogues; Communication; Peirce

Intertextuality (Slembrouck)    see also Bakhtin; Computer-mediated communication; Polyphony

Interview (Briggs)    see also Elicitation; Fieldwork

Intimacy   see Laughter

Intonation   see Communicative dynamism; Information structure; Markedness; Prosody

Intonation unit   see Consciousness and language

Intuition and introspection (Schneider)    see also Cognitive science

Involvement   see Affect

Irony (Giora)    see also Experimental pragmatics; Frame analysis; Humor; Polyphony

Isomorphism   see Iconicity


J

Jakobson, R   see Participation; Phatic communion; Prague school; Structuralism

James, W.   see Morris; Pragmatism

Jargon (Martín Rojo)

Joke   see Humor; Irony

Journalism   see Mass media; Mediated performatives

Judgement   see Appraisal

Jury instruction   see Forensic linguistics


K

Kilivila   see Malinowski

Kinesics   see Non-verbal communication

Knowledge   see Artificial intelligence; Austin; Authority; Epistemology of testimony; Foucault

Knowledge representation   see Artificial intelligence; Cognitive psychology; Cognitive science; Connectionism

Koineization   see Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics

Kripke, S.   see Reference and descriptions

Kristeva, J.   see Intertextuality


L

L2   see Second language acquisition

Labov, W.   see Correlational sociolinguistics; Creole linguistics; Sociolinguistics

Language acquisition (Gillis & Ravid)    see also Developmental psychology; Discourse analysis; Discourse markers; Interjections; Irony; Literacy; Metalinguistic awareness; Morphopragmatics; Pragmatic particles; Psycholinguistics; Repair; Text and discourse linguistics; Text structure; Vygotsky

Language acquisition device   see Language acquisition

Language and the law (Angermeyer)

Language and thought   see Boas; Consciousness and language; Developmental psychology; Embodiment; Humboldt; Perception and language; Sapir; Vygotsky; Whorf

Language attitudes   see Attitude

Language change (Hickey)    see also Borrowing; Contact linguistics; Correlational sociolinguistics; Creativity in language use; Creoles and creolization; Dialectology; Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics; Discourse analysis; Genre; Historical linguistics; Historical politeness; Historical pragmatics; Implicature and language change; Morphopragmatics; Polysemy; Pragmatic markers; Structuralism; Text and discourse linguistics; Text structure; de Saussure

Language choice   see Intercultural communication; Language policy, language planning and standardization

Language comprehension   see Comprehension vs. production

Language conflict   see Language contact; Language dominance and minorization

Language contact (Matras)    see also Borrowing; Contact; Language change; Literacy

Language death   see Language contact; Language ecology; Language rights

Language disorders   see Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Neurolinguistics

Language dominance and minorization (Patrick)    see also Language ecology

Language ecology (Skutnabb-Kangas & Phillipson)

Language for special purposes (LSP)   see Applied linguistics; Genre

Language game   see Game-theoretical semantics; Wittgenstein

Language generation and interpretation   see Natural language generation and interpretation

Language ideologies (Kroskrity)    see also Bilingualism and multilingualism; Bourdieu; Ideology; Language dominance and minorization; Literacy; Metalinguistic awareness; Speech community

Language impairment   see Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Neurolinguistics; Perception and language

Language learning in immersion and CLIL classrooms (Nikula & Mård-Miettinen)

Language maintenance   see Language policy, language planning and standardization

Language pathology   see Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Language acquisition; Perception and language

Language planning   see Language policy, language planning and standardization

Language policy, language planning and standardization (Herbert)    see also Applied linguistics; Authority; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Contact linguistics; Intercultural communication; Language ideologies; Linguistic landscape studies; Literacy; Sociolinguistics

Language processing   see Natural language processing

Language rights (Skutnabb-Kangas)

Language shift   see Contact; Interjections; Language change; Language ecology

Language teaching   see Applied linguistics; Error analysis; Ideology; Interlanguage pragmatics; Language learning in immersion and CLIL classrooms; Motivation and language; Pragmatic particles; Register

Language technology   see Artificial intelligence

Language universals   see Conversational logic; Dialectology; Humboldt; Language acquisition; Sound symbolism; Speech act theory; Typology; Variational pragmatics; Word order

Language variation   see Dialect; Dialectology; Variational pragmatics

Langue vs. parole   see Structuralism; de Saussure

Lateralization   see Neurolinguistics

Laughable   see Laughter

Laughter (Glenn & Holt)    see also Emotion display

Learnability   see Language acquisition

Least-effort hypothesis   see Semantics vs. pragmatics

Lect   see Dialect

Leech, G. (Culpeper)

Left vs. right hemisphere   see Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Neurolinguistics

Legal language   see Applied linguistics; Authority; Forensic linguistics; Language and the law; Sequence; Silence

Legal settings   see Forensic linguistics

Legitimation   see Foucault

Lesion syndrome   see Neurolinguistics

Lexical bundle/cluster/string   see Collocation and colligation

Lexical decomposition   see Componential analysis

Lexical field analysis (Geeraerts)    see also Componential analysis; Lexical semantics; Structuralism

Lexical functional grammar (Ackerman)    see also Computational linguistics

Lexical primitive   see Semantic primitive

Lexical semantics (MacLaury)    see also Componential analysis; Frame semantics; Lexical field analysis; Markedness; Metonymy; Polysemy; Vygotsky

Lexicalist hypothesis   see Interpretive semantics

Lexicase   see Case grammar

Lexico-grammar   see Metaphor

Lexicography   see Discourse markers; Frame semantics; Pragmatic particles

Lexicometry   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

Lexicon   see Collocation and colligation; Comprehension vs. production; Default interpretations; Discourse representation theory; Interactional linguistics; Language acquisition; Predicates and predication; The multilingual lexicon; Word

Lexicostatistics   see Historical linguistics

Life stories (Van De Mieroop & Clifton)    see also Narrative

Lifestyle (Thøgersen & Pedersen)

Linear modification   see Communicative dynamism

Linearization   see Word order

Linguicide   see Language ecology; Language rights

Linguistic action verb   see Metapragmatic term

Linguistic atlas   see Dialectology

Linguistic determinism   see Manipulation; Perception and language

Linguistic diversity   see Language ecology

Linguistic dominance   see Language ecology; Language rights

Linguistic engineering   see Artificial intelligence

Linguistic explanation (Frawley & Golinkoff)    see also Functionalism vs. formalism

Linguistic genocide   see Linguicide

Linguistic hierarchy   see Language dominance and minorization

Linguistic human rights   see Language dominance and minorization; Language ecology; Language rights

Linguistic imperialism   see Language ecology

Linguistic landscape studies (Gorter)

Linguistic relativity (principle)   see Anthropological linguistics; Boas; Cognitive anthropology; Culture; Lexical semantics; Manipulation; Perception and language; Sapir; Speech act theory; Taxonomy; Whorf; ‘Other’ representation

Linguistic repertoire   see Gumperz

Linguistic turn   see Analytical philosophy

Linking   see Conceptual semantics

Listener response (Xudong)

Literacy (Cook-Gumperz)    see also Applied linguistics; Channel; Computer-mediated communication; Language acquisition; Language ideologies; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Metalinguistic awareness; Multilingualism

Literary criticism   see Figures of speech

Literary pragmatics (de Geest)    see also Bakhtin; Context and contextualization; Creativity in language use; Deconstruction; Figures of speech; Hermeneutics; Narrative; Rhetoric; Structuralism; Stylistics

Localization problem   see Neurolinguistics

Location   see Contact linguistics

Logic   see Generative semantics; Grice; Modality; Semiotics; Wittgenstein

Logic-based formalism   see Artificial intelligence

Logical analysis (Vergauwen)

Logical atomism   see Analytical philosophy

Logical empiricism/Logical positivism   see Analytical philosophy; Grice; Morris

Logical notation   see Notation in formal semantics

Logical semantics (Vergauwen)    see also Deontic logic; Discourse representation theory; Epistemic logic; Formal pragmatics; Game-theoretical semantics; Intensional logic; Modal logic; Model-theoretic semantics; Montague and categorial grammar; Ontology; Possible worlds semantics; Situation semantics; Truth-conditional semantics

Logical typing of communication   see Bateson; Communication

Longitudinal method   see Developmental psychology

Loudness   see Prosody

Lying   see Truthfulness


M

M-principle   see Anaphora; Semantics vs. pragmatics

MTA   see Tense and aspect

Machine translation   see Translation studies

Macro-sociolinguistics   see Sociolinguistics

Malinowski, B. K. (Senft)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Culture; Firthian linguistics; Participation; Phatic communion

Manipulation (Chilton)    see also Truthfulness

Mapping   see Cognitive science

Markedness (Comrie)    see also Emphasis; Language change; Negation

Marrism   see Marxist linguistics

Marx, Karl   see Bourdieu; Ideology

Marxist linguistics (Helsloot)    see also Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

Mass media (Jucker)    see also Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Channel; Communication; Conversation analysis; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Discourse analysis; Ideology; Manipulation; Public discourse; Silence

Materialism   see Cognitive science

Mathematical linguistics   see Communication

Mathesius, V. (Nekula)    see also Prague school

Maxims of conversation   see Cooperative principle

Mead, G. H.   see Morris; Symbolic interactionism

Mead, M.   see Culture

Meaning   see Analytical philosophy; Austin; Cohesion and coherence; Deixis; Firth; Grice; Integrational linguistics; Model-theoretic semantics; Phatic communion; Semiotics; Situation semantics; Sound symbolism; Wittgenstein

Meaning construction   see Cognitive science; Cognitive sociology; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Grounded theory

Meaning definition   see Predicates and predication

Meaning postulate   see Lexical semantics

Meaning potential   see Social class and language

Mediated performatives (Kampf)

Medical interaction   see Interpreter-mediated interaction; Therapeutic conversation

Medical language   see Applied linguistics; Authority

Medium   see Channel; Mass media; Mediated performatives; Multimodality

Medvedev, P. N.   see Bakhtin

Membership categorization   see Age and language use; Sacks

Memory   see Attention and language; Consciousness and language; Perception and language

Mental spaces (Oakley)    see also Conceptual integration

Mental states   see Experimental pragmatics

Mentalism (Nuyts)    see also Chomskyan linguistics; Cognitive science; Objectivism vs. subjectivism; Philosophy of mind

Mesolect   see Creole linguistics

Metacommunication   see Bateson

Metalanguage   see Corpus pragmatics; Impoliteness; Reported speech

Metalinguistic awareness (Mertz & Yovel)    see also Adaptability; Collaboration in dialogues; Computer-mediated communication; Consciousness and language; Evolutionary pragmatics; Folk pragmatics; Language acquisition; Language ideologies; Literacy; Metapragmatics

Metalinguistic negation   see Negation

Metalinguistics   see Bakhtin

Metaphor (Taverniers)    see also Cerebral representation of language; Cognitive linguistics; Embodiment; Emphasis; Experimental pragmatics; Figures of speech; Iconicity; Implicature and language change; Language change; Metonymy; Polysemy; Silence; Truthfulness

Metaphysics   see Grice

Metapragmatic term   see Metapragmatics

Metapragmatics (Verschueren)    see also Agency and language; Aisatsu; Anthropological linguistics; Cerebral representation of language; Folk pragmatics; Interactional sociolinguistics; Language ideologies; Metalinguistic awareness

Metonymy (Panther & Radden)    see also Figures of speech; Implicature and language change; Lexical semantics; Metaphor; Polysemy; Speech act

Micro-sociolinguistics   see Sociolinguistics

Micro-sociology   see Social psychology

Mind-body problem   see Philosophy of mind

Minority   see Language dominance and minorization; Language ecology; Language rights; Linguistic landscape studies; ‘Other’ representation

Misunderstanding   see Communicative success vs. failure; Truthfulness

Mitigation   see Laughter

Mixed languages   see Language contact

Modal logic (Gochet)    see also Deontic logic; Epistemic logic; Logical semantics

Modal particle   see Pragmatic particles

Modality (Kiefer)    see also Appraisal; Authority; Implicature and language change; Modal logic; Signed language pragmatics; Énonciation

Mode   see Firth; Multimodality; Social semiotics

Model-theoretic semantics (Gochet)    see also Game-theoretical semantics; Logical semantics; Montague and categorial grammar; Notation in formal semantics; Possible worlds semantics; Situation semantics

Modularity   see Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Cognitive psychology; Cognitive science; Conceptual semantics; Irony; Language acquisition; Psycholinguistics

Monolingualism   see Language dominance and minorization

Monologizing   see Interpreter-mediated interaction

Monologue   see Think-aloud protocols

Monosemy   see Polysemy

Montague and categorial grammar (Frosch)    see also Discourse representation theory; Formal pragmatics; Intensional logic; Logical semantics; Model-theoretic semantics

Moore, G. E.   see Analytical philosophy

Morphology   see Deixis; Discourse markers; Language change; Morphopragmatics; Word

Morphopragmatics (Dressler & Merlini Barbaresi)

Morris, C. (Petrilli)

Motherese   see Register

Motivation (Dörnyei)

Motivation and language (Ushioda)

Move   see Predicates and predication; Therapeutic conversation

Multi-party talk   see Collaboration in dialogues; Conversation types

Multiculturalism   see Culture

Multifunctionality   see Pragmatic markers

Multilingual lexicon (The) (Dijkstra)

Multilingualism   see Bilingualism and multilingualism; Creativity in language use; Language contact; Language ecology; Linguistic landscape studies; Literacy; The multilingual lexicon

Multimodality (Björkvall)    see also Computational pragmatics; Computer-mediated communication; Embodiment; Emphasis; Genre; Historical politeness; Metaphor; Social semiotics; Translation studies

Mutual knowledge   see Common ground


N

Name   see Linguistic landscape studies; Reference and descriptions; Socio-onomastics

Narrative (Georgakopoulou)    see also Appraisal; Collaboration in dialogues; Discourse analysis; Emotion display; Grounded theory; Grounding; Metalinguistic awareness; Reported speech; Sequence; Text type

Narratology   see Discourse analysis; Semiotics; Text and discourse linguistics

Nationalism   see Language dominance and minorization

Native-nonnative interaction   see Discourse markers; Intercultural communication

Nativism   see Authenticity; Language acquisition

Natural history of discourse   see Metalinguistic awareness

Natural language generation and interpretation   see Natural language processing

Natural language processing   see Artificial intelligence; Borrowing; Cognitive psychology; Computational linguistics; Connectionism; Psycholinguistics; The multilingual lexicon

Natural logic   see Argumentation theory

Natural semantic metalanguage   see Componential analysis

Naturalness   see Authenticity; Language change

Nature vs. nurture   see Cognitive science

Negation (Miestamo)    see also Indeterminacy and negotiation; Modality; Polyphony; Truthfulness

Negotiation   see Adaptability; Applied linguistics; Indeterminacy and negotiation; Prosody; Truthfulness

Neo-Gricean pragmatics   see Anaphora; Grice; Implicature and language change; Semantics vs. pragmatics

Neo-Kaplanean semantics   see Semantics vs. pragmatics

Neogrammarians   see Historical linguistics; Lexical field analysis; Prague school; Reconstruction; de Saussure

Neoliberalism   see Ideology

Network (social)   see Computer-mediated communication; Language change

Neuroimaging   see Brain imaging

Neurolinguistic programming   see General semantics

Neurolinguistics (Bertuccelli Papi)    see also Adaptability; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Cerebral representation of language; Clinical pragmatics; Language acquisition; Perception and language

Neurophysiology   see Connectionism; Irony; Neurolinguistics; Neuropragmatics

Neuropragmatics (Bambini & Bara)    see also Clinical pragmatics

Neuropsychology   see Cognitive science; Perception and language

New Left   see Bourdieu

New rhetoric   see Argumentation theory; Genre; Rhetoric

News interview   see Mass media

Newspaper   see Mass media

Nexus analysis (Lane)    see also Bourdieu

Nominalization   see Predicates and predication

Non-literal meaning   see Neuropragmatics

Non-modular grammar   see Construction grammar

Non-seriousness   see Laughter

Non-verbal communication (Payrató)    see also Channel; Cultural scripts; Frame analysis

Normality   see Ethnomethodology

Norms   see Creativity in language use; Ethnomethodology

Notation Systems in Spoken Language Corpora (Lenk)    see also Transcription systems for spoken discourse

Notation in formal semantics (De Mulder)

Noun phrase   see Situation semantics

Novelty   see Creativity in language use


O

Object language   see Metalinguistic awareness

Objectivism vs. subjectivism (Schneider)    see also Behaviorism; Epistemology; Foucault; Mentalism

Observation   see Cognitive science; Culture; Fieldwork

Ọmọlúàbí (Odebunmi)

Onomastics   see Socio-onomastics

Ontology (Vergauwen)    see also Epistemology; Logical semantics

Opacity   see Mental spaces

Operationism   see Behaviorism

Optimality theory   see Default interpretations

Orality   see Channel

Orders of discourse   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Ideology

Ordinary language philosophy   see (The) pragmatic perspective; Analytical philosophy; Conversational logic; Grice; Indeterminacy and negotiation; Metalinguistic awareness; Metapragmatics; Pragmatism; Speech act theory; Wittgenstein

Organizational setting   see Social institutions

Organon model   see Bühler

Origins of language   see Cognitive anthropology; Evolutionary pragmatics; Humboldt

‘Other’ representation (Coupland)    see also Age and language use

Other(ing)   see Authority; ‘Other’ representation

Other-repair   see Repair

Othering   see ‘Other’ representation

Overhearer   see Audience

Overlap (Xudong)


P

Paralanguage   see Cerebral representation of language; Non-verbal communication

Paraphrase semantics   see Componential analysis

Parole   see Langue vs. parole

Parsing   see Computational linguistics

Participant observation   see Observation

Participation (Sidnell)    see also Frame analysis; Goffman

Participation framework   see Participation

Pêcheux, M.   see Marxist linguistics

Peirce, C. S. (Parmentier)    see also Iconicity; Morris; Pragmatism; Semiotics; Sign

Pejorative   see Morphopragmatics; ‘Other’ representation

Perception and language (Lindsay)    see also Austin; Embodiment; Iconicity; Language acquisition

Perceptron   see Connectionism; Psycholinguistics

Performance   see Computer-mediated communication

Performativity   see Austin; Benveniste; Mediated performatives; Metalinguistic awareness; Speech act theory

Perlocution   see Intentionality; Speech act theory

Personality   see Sapir

Persuasion   see Manipulation

Phatic communion (Senft)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Ethnography of speaking; Evolutionary pragmatics; Firthian linguistics; Malinowski; Participation

Phenomenology (Verschueren)    see also Austin; Embodiment; Ethnomethodology; Semiotics

Philosophy of action (Buekens)    see also Action theory; Austin

Philosophy of language (Kasher)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Analytical philosophy; Austin; Conversational logic; Humboldt; Speech act theory; Wittgenstein

Philosophy of mind (Cuypers)    see also Cognitive science; Grice; Mentalism

Phonetic notation systems (Verhoeven & Hirson)

Phonetics   see Boas; Discourse markers; de Saussure

Phonology   see Structuralism

Phrase-structure grammar   see Chomskyan linguistics; Computational linguistics

Physical symbol system   see Artificial intelligence; Cognitive psychology; Cognitive science

Picture-theory of meaning   see Wittgenstein

Pidgins and pidginization   see Contact; Contact linguistics; Creole linguistics; Creoles and creolization; Intercultural communication

Pitch   see Prosody

Plagiarism   see Authorship

Planning   see Computational pragmatics

Poetic language   see Figures of speech; Grounding

Poetics   see Bakhtin

Point of view   see Grounding

Polarity   see Negation

Police interrogation   see Applied linguistics; Forensic linguistics; Interpreter-mediated interaction

Politeness (Kasper)    see also Aisatsu; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Goffman; Historical politeness; Historical pragmatics; Honorifics; Implicitness; Impoliteness; Interlanguage pragmatics; Leech; Morphopragmatics; Silence; Terms of address; Truthfulness

Political correctness   see ‘Other’ representation

Political language   see Authority

Political linguistics   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

Polyphony (Roulet)    see also Appraisal; Bakhtin; Collaboration in dialogues; Dialogical analysis

Polysemy (Brugman)    see also Implicature and language change; Indeterminacy and negotiation

Polysystemic analysis   see Firth

Possible worlds semantics (Gochet)    see also Epistemic logic; Logical semantics; Model-theoretic semantics; Truth-conditional semantics

Poststructuralism   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Deconstruction

Posture   see Non-verbal communication

Power   see Authority; Cognitive sociology; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Foucault; Gumperz; Honorifics; Ideology; Manipulation; Metalinguistic awareness; Politeness; Silence; Social institutions

Practice (theory)   see Agency and language; Nexus analysis; Social class and language

Pragma-dialectics   see Argumentation theory

Pragmalinguistics   see Leech

Pragmastylistics   see Stylistics

Pragmatic acquisition (Zufferey)    see also Cognitive psychology; Developmental dyslexia; Developmental psychology; Experimental pragmatics; Experimentation; Language acquisition; Psycholinguistics

Pragmatic explanation   see Linguistic explanation

Pragmatic function   see Functional grammar

Pragmatic impairment   see Clinical pragmatics

Pragmatic intrusion   see Semantics vs. pragmatics

Pragmatic markers (Aijmer & Simon-Vandenbergen)    see also Discourse markers; Pragmatic particles

Pragmatic norm   see Interlanguage pragmatics

Pragmatic particles (Foolen)    see also Discourse markers; Interjections

Pragmatic perspective (The) (Verschueren)

Pragmatic scale   see Scalarity

Pragmatic transfer   see Interlanguage pragmatics

Pragmaticalization   see Pragmatic markers

Pragmaticism   see Evolutionary pragmatics; Morris; Objectivism vs. subjectivism; Pragmatism

Pragmatics   see (The) pragmatic perspective

Pragmatism (Buekens)    see also Morris; Peirce; Semiotics

Prague school (Sgall)    see also Communicative dynamism; Discourse analysis; Functional grammar; Functional sentence perspective; Markedness; Mathesius; Structuralism; Text linguistics; Word order

Precisification principle   see Indeterminacy and negotiation

Predicate logic   see Artificial intelligence; Notation in formal semantics

Predicates and predication (Mackenzie & García Velasco)

Preference organization   see Repair; Sequence

Prejudice   see ‘Other’ representation

Prestige   see Language dominance and minorization

Presumptive meaning   see Default interpretations

Presupposition (Delogu)    see also Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Context and contextualization; Discourse representation theory; Formal pragmatics; Implicitness; Mental spaces; Truthfulness

Primate communication (Tomasello)

Priming   see Psycholinguistics

Print   see Channel

Private language   see Wittgenstein

Probabilistic technique   see Statistics

Problematization   see Foucault

Problematology   see Argumentation theory; Rhetoric

Procedural semantics   see Cognitive psychology

Processing   see Comprehension vs. production; Inferencing; Information processing; Production; Text comprehension

Production   see Conceptual semantics; Psycholinguistics

Productivity   see Creativity in language use

Projection problem   see Presupposition

Pronoun   see Anaphora; Creole linguistics; Humboldt; Negation

Proper name   see Name

Property theory   see Intensional logic

Propositional attitude   see Discourse representation theory; Intensional logic

Propositional semantics   see Evolutionary pragmatics

Prosody (Couper-Kuhlen)    see also Cerebral representation of language; Emphasis; Firth; Gumperz; Information structure; Interactional linguistics; Language acquisition

Proto-grammar   see Iconicity

Prototype (theory)   see Categorization; Cognitive linguistics; Dependency and valency grammar; Language acquisition; Lexical semantics; Polysemy; Taxonomy

Proxemics   see Non-verbal communication

Psychiatry   see Bateson; Therapeutic conversation

Psycholinguistics (Prideaux)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Borrowing; Bühler; Cognitive psychology; Comprehension vs. production; Connectionism; Developmental psychology; Experimental pragmatics; Experimentation; Non-verbal communication; Perception and language; Text comprehension; The multilingual lexicon; Translation studies; Vygotsky

Psychological anthropology   see Cognitive anthropology

Psychosemantics   see Philosophy of mind

Psychotherapy   see Psychiatry

Public discourse (Sarangi)    see also Goffman; Mediated performatives; Social institutions

Putnam, H.   see Analytical philosophy


Q

Q-principle   see Anaphora; Semantics vs. pragmatics

Qualitative methods   see Grounded theory

Quantifier   see Model-theoretic semantics; Notation in formal semantics

Quantitative method   see Statistics

Question answering   see Computational pragmatics

Question word   see Repair

Questionnaire   see Interview

Quine, W.v.O.   see Reported speech

Quotation   see Analytical philosophy


R

Racism   see Ideology; ‘Other’ representation

Radical argumentativism   see Argumentation theory

Radical pragmatics   see Grice

Radio   see Mass media

Rationality   see Default interpretations; Ethnomethodology; Foucault; Grice; Ideology

Reading analysis   see Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Text comprehension

Recall   see Collaboration in dialogues

Reception theory   see Literary pragmatics

Recipient design   see Collaboration in dialogues; Communicative style

Reconstruction (Nurse)    see also Dialectology; Historical linguistics; Language change

Recoverability   see Ellipsis

Reference   see Anaphora; Definiteness; Experimental pragmatics; Functional discourse grammar; Functional grammar; Information structure; Mental spaces; Metalinguistic awareness; Model-theoretic semantics; Polysemy; Predicates and predication; Reference and descriptions; Tagmemics

Reference and descriptions (Bianchi)

Referential choice   see Definiteness

Referring   see Reference; Reference and descriptions

Reflection   see Communicative success vs. failure; Humboldt

Reflexive   see Anaphora

Reflexivity   see Adaptability; Ethnomethodology; Foucault; Metalinguistic awareness; ‘Other’ representation

Reflexology   see Behaviorism

Register (Dittmar)    see also Applied linguistics; Channel; Context and contextualization; Correlational sociolinguistics; Error analysis; Firthian linguistics; Frame analysis; Gumperz; Honorifics; Intercultural communication; Rhetoric; Sociolinguistics; Stylistics; Systemic functional grammar

Regularity   see Relational ritual

Reinforcement   see Emphasis

Relational grammar   see Lexical functional grammar

Relational ritual (Kádár)

Relevance   see Computational pragmatics; Conversation analysis; Conversational logic; Irony; Relevance theory

Relevance theory (Blakemore)    see also Anaphora; Clinical pragmatics; Communication; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Experimental pragmatics; Humor; Manipulation; Semantics vs. pragmatics; Tense and aspect; Truth-conditional semantics; Truthfulness

Religion   see Authority

Repair (Sidnell)    see also Communicative success vs. failure; Conversation analysis; Prosody; Sequence

Repertoire   see Linguistic repertoire

Repetition   see Emergent grammar

Reported speech (Holt)    see also Intertextuality; Énonciation

Representation   see Adaptability; Conceptual semantics; Evolutionary pragmatics; Foucault; Iconicity; Indeterminacy and negotiation; Intentionality; Metalinguistic awareness; Psycholinguistics; Social psychology; Truthfulness; Wittgenstein; ‘Other’ representation

Resistance   see Therapeutic conversation

Resource   see Multimodality

Respect   see Deference

Response   see Ọmọlúàbí

Response cry   see Emotion display; Goffman

Responsibility   see Austin

Rheme   see Theme vs. rheme

Rhetoric (Kienpointner)    see also Argumentation theory; Discourse analysis; Figures of speech; Functional discourse grammar; Genre; Literary pragmatics; Manipulation; Metalinguistic awareness; Narrative; Social psychology; Stylistics

Rhetorical relations   see Discourse representation theory

Rhetorical structure theory   see Artificial intelligence; Computational pragmatics; Discourse analysis

Ritual   see Goffman; Relational ritual

Role and reference grammar (Van Valin, Jr.)    see also Case and semantic roles; Case grammar; Dependency and valency grammar

Role vs. value   see Mental spaces

Rossi-Landi, F.   see Morris

Routine (formula)   see Aisatsu; Impoliteness; Relational ritual; Ọmọlúàbí

Routinization   see Emergent grammar

Rule   see Ethnomethodology; Psycholinguistics; Speech act theory; Wittgenstein

Rule-based formalism   see Artificial intelligence

Russell, B.   see Analytical philosophy; Definiteness; Reference and descriptions

Russian formalism   see Deconstruction; Discourse analysis; Literary pragmatics; Prague school; Semiotics; Stylistics


S

Sacks, H. (Watson)    see also Conversation analysis

Salience   see Anaphora; Emphasis; Experimental pragmatics; Grounding; Irony; Word order

Sampling   see Data collection

Sapir, E. (Vermeulen)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Boas; Culture; Whorf

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis   see Linguistic relativity principle

Sarcasm   see Irony

Saussure, F. de (Harris)    see also Geneva school; Participation; Sign; Structuralism

Scalarity   see Conceptual integration; Experimental pragmatics; Implicitness; Negation

Scale and category grammar   see Systemic functional grammar

Scenario   see Frame semantics; Lexical semantics

Scene   see Frame semantics; Lexical semantics

Scene-and-frame semantics   see Frame semantics

Schema   see Cognitive science; Frame analysis

Schizophrenia   see Clinical pragmatics

Schooling   see Aisatsu; Language acquisition

Scientific language   see Analytical philosophy; Applied linguistics; Text comprehension

Script   see Cognitive science; Frame analysis; Frame semantics; Humor

Searle, J. R.   see Analytical philosophy; Contextualism; Intentionality; Reference and descriptions; Speech act theory

Second language acquisition   see Applied linguistics; Contact linguistics; Intercultural communication; Interlanguage pragmatics; Language learning in immersion and CLIL classrooms; Motivation; Silence; Text comprehension; The multilingual lexicon

Selection restrictions   see Predicates and predication

Self   see Authenticity; Authority; Goffman; Laughter

Self-repair   see Repair

Semantic differential   see Social psychology

Semantic field analysis   see Lexical field analysis

Semantic minimalism   see Contextualism

Semantic network   see Artificial intelligence

Semantic primitive   see Componential analysis; Cultural scripts

Semantic structure   see Role and reference grammar

Semantics vs. pragmatics (Turner)    see also Anaphora; Cerebral representation of language; Discourse representation theory; Generative semantics; Grice; Implicitness; Indeterminacy and negotiation; Leech; Metalinguistic awareness; Metaphor; Montague and categorial grammar; Reference and descriptions; Semiotics; Structuralism

Semiology   see Integrational linguistics; Semiotics; de Saussure

Semiophysics   see Catastrophe theory

Semiotic resource   see Social semiotics

Semiotics (Pankow)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Bakhtin; Benveniste; Iconicity; Morris; Peirce; Pragmatism; Sign; Social semiotics; Speech community

Sense   see Analytical philosophy; Polysemy

Sensorimotor dysfunction   see Clinical pragmatics

Sentence fragment   see Ellipsis

Sentence grammar   see Cerebral representation of language

Sentence linearity   see Communicative dynamism

Sentence processing   see The multilingual lexicon

Sentence type   see Markedness

Sequence (Sidnell)    see also Conversation analysis; Grounding; Language and the law; Notation Systems in Spoken Language Corpora; Prosody; Relational ritual; Repair; Therapeutic conversation

Sequencing   see Sequence

Sequentiality   see Iconicity

Sexual orientation   see Silence

Shared knowledge   see Common ground

Sign (Wouters)    see also Evolutionary pragmatics; Iconicity; Integrational linguistics; Morris; Semiotics; Signed language pragmatics; Social semiotics; Speech community; de Saussure

Sign language(s)   see Language ecology; Non-verbal communication

Signed language pragmatics (Janzen, Shaffer & Wilcox)

Silence (Kurzon)

Silencing   see Silence; ‘Other’ representation

Simile   see Metaphor

Sincerity   see Authenticity; Truthfulness

Singular term   see Indexicals and demonstratives

Situated action theory   see Cognitive science

Situation semantics (De Mulder)    see also Communication; Discourse representation theory; Logical semantics; Model-theoretic semantics

Slang   see Jargon

Sluicing   see Ellipsis

Social anthropology   see Anthropological linguistics; Cognitive anthropology

Social class and language (Snell)

Social cognition   see Bühler; Social psychology

Social difference/inequality   see Power

Social distancing   see ‘Other’ representation

Social institutions (Watts)    see also Applied linguistics; Authority; Cognitive sociology; Communication; Conversation types; Forensic linguistics; Frame analysis; Intercultural communication; Narrative; Politeness; Public discourse; Therapeutic conversation

Social organization   see Aisatsu; Authority; Cognitive sociology

Social psychology (Potter)    see also Accommodation theory; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Conversation analysis; Ethnomethodology; Motivation; Nexus analysis; Overlap; Symbolic interactionism; Terms of address

Social relationship   see Social organization

Social science   see Grounded theory

Social semiotics (Bezemer & Jewitt)    see also Appraisal; Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Critical theory; Linguistic landscape studies; Literary pragmatics; Multimodality; Semiotics; Sign

Socialization   see Aisatsu; Developmental psychology; Vygotsky

Socio-onomastics (Ainiala)

Sociolect   see Dialect

Sociolinguistics (Romaine)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Anthropological linguistics; Applied linguistics; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Code-switching; Cognitive sociology; Contact linguistics; Correlational sociolinguistics; Creole linguistics; Creoles and creolization; Dialectology; Gumperz; Interactional sociolinguistics; Language contact; Language dominance and minorization; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Lifestyle; Linguistic landscape studies; Metalinguistic awareness; Pragmatic markers; Social class and language; Speech community

Sociology   see Bourdieu; Goffman; Gumperz

Sociology of language   see Dialectology; Sociolinguistics

Sociopragmatics   see Leech

Sociosemiotics   see Social semiotics

Sonority   see Language change

Sound symbolism (Akita)    see also Iconicity

Speaker vs. listener   see Comprehension vs. production; Dialogical analysis; Manipulation; Participation; Terms of address; Truthfulness

Speaker’s meaning   see Speech act theory

Speaking vs. writing   see Applied linguistics; Channel; Communicative style; Computer-mediated communication; Discourse analysis; Integrational linguistics; Language acquisition; Notation Systems in Spoken Language Corpora; Register; Text and discourse linguistics; de Saussure

Speech accommodation   see Accommodation theory; Social psychology

Speech act   see Adaptability; Argumentation theory; Austin; Cerebral representation of language; Conventions of language; Formal pragmatics; Grice; Historical pragmatics; Intercultural communication; Interlanguage pragmatics; Mediated performatives; Metonymy; Modality; Morphopragmatics; Neuropragmatics; Non-verbal communication; Politeness; Pragmatic particles; Speech act theory

Speech act classification   see Speech act theory

Speech act theory (Sbisà)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Analytical philosophy; Artificial intelligence; Austin; Benveniste; Clinical pragmatics; Conversational implicature; Conversational logic; Indeterminacy and negotiation; Intentionality; Language and the law; Philosophy of language; Truthfulness

Speech circuit   see Participation

Speech community (Rampton)    see also Computer-mediated communication; Gumperz

Speech event   see Pragmatic particles

Speech genre   see Bakhtin; Metalinguistic awareness

Spelling   see Language acquisition; Psycholinguistics

Spoken discourse   see Speaking vs. writing

Spoken language corpora   see Notation Systems in Spoken Language Corpora

Sprachbund (‘linguistic area’)   see Contact linguistics; Language change; Language contact; Sociolinguistics

Stance   see Appraisal; Emotion display

Standard language   see Dialectology and geolinguistic dynamics

Standardization   see Authority; Integrational linguistics; Language dominance and minorization; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Literacy

State of Affairs   see Predicates and predication

State-space search   see Artificial intelligence

Statistics (van Hout)    see also Computational linguistics; Corpus analysis; Correlational sociolinguistics; Experimentation

Stereotype   see ‘Other’ representation

Story(-telling)   see Narrative

Strategy   see Impoliteness

Strawson, P. F.   see Analytical philosophy; Definiteness; Reference and descriptions

Stress   see Information structure; Prosody

Stripping   see Ellipsis

Structuralism (Willems)    see also Autonomous vs. non-autonomous syntax; Benveniste; Bourdieu; Componential analysis; Corpus analysis; Discourse analysis; Geneva school; Hermeneutics; Language change; Lexical field analysis; Lexical semantics; Prague school; Semiotics; Sign; de Saussure

Style   see Communicative style; Creole linguistics; Ellipsis; Figures of speech; Register

Stylistic stratification   see Social class and language

Stylistics (Semino & Culpeper)    see also Communicative style; Discourse analysis; Emphasis; Figures of speech; Literary pragmatics; Mathesius; Rhetoric; Text linguistics

Subject   see Communicative dynamism

Subjectivity   see Benveniste; Foucault; Implicature and language change; Signed language pragmatics; Énonciation

Substitution   see Anaphora

Syllable structure   see Prosody

Symbolic behavior   see Evolutionary pragmatics

Symbolic capital   see Bourdieu; Social institutions

Symbolic interactionism (Watson)    see also Bourdieu; Cognitive sociology; Context and contextualization; Ethnomethodology; Goffman; Social psychology

Symbolic vs. subsymbolic architecture   see Cognitive science

Symbolism   see Morris

Symbolization   see Bühler; Cognitive grammar

Symmetry   see Language change

Synchrony   see Iconicity; Non-verbal communication; Structuralism

Synergetics   see Catastrophe theory

Synesthesia   see Metaphor

Syntax   see Anaphora; Comprehension vs. production; Discourse markers; Ellipsis; Grice; Interactional linguistics; Language acquisition; Language change; Polysemy

Systemic functional grammar (Butler)    see also Appraisal; Emphasis; Firth; Firthian linguistics; Functional grammar; Genre; Metaphor; Multimodality


T

Tact   see Leech; Politeness; Ọmọlúàbí

Tagging   see Corpus analysis

Tagmemics (Pike)

Taxonomy (MacLaury)

Telephone conversation   see Emotion display

Television   see Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Channel; Mass media

Temporal reference   see Narrative

Tenor   see Register

Tense   see Modality; Tense and aspect

Tense and aspect (Binnick)

Tense logic   see Modal logic

Terms of address (Braun)    see also Honorifics

Territoriality   see Language rights

Testimony   see Epistemology of testimony; Interpreter-mediated interaction

Testing   see Text comprehension

Text   see Boas; Culture; Systemic functional grammar

Text analysis   see Computational linguistics; Text type

Text and discourse linguistics (Östman & Virtanen)    see also Common ground; Text linguistics

Text comprehension (Dirks)

Text linguistics (de Beaugrande)    see also Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis; Discourse analysis; Prague school; Stylistics; Text and discourse linguistics; Translation studies

Text structure (Virtanen)    see also Narrative

Text type (Pilegaard & Frandsen)    see also Discourse analysis; Genre; Pragmatic particles; Text and discourse linguistics; Think-aloud protocols

Theme vs. rheme   see Communicative dynamism; Functional grammar; Word order

Theory and theorizing   see Firth; Grounded theory

Theory of mind   see Adaptability; Clinical pragmatics; Communication

Therapeutic conversation (Voutilainen & Peräkylä)

Think-aloud protocols (Jonasson)

Thirdness   see Morris

Threat   see Impoliteness

Timing problem   see Neurolinguistics; Neuropragmatics

Topic management   see Laughter

Topic vs. focus   see Anaphora; Argumentation in discourse and grammar; Functional discourse grammar; Functional grammar; Functional sentence perspective

Topic-comment structure   see Computational pragmatics; Information structure; Signed language pragmatics; Word order

Topicality   see Signed language pragmatics

Toponym   see Socio-onomastics

Trajectory   see Sequence

Transcription   see Grounded theory; Laughter; Phonetic notation systems

Transcription systems for spoken discourse (O’Connell & Kowal)    see also Conversation analysis; Notation Systems in Spoken Language Corpora

Transformational grammar   see Generative(-transformational) linguistics

Transitivity   see Grounding

Translation   see Interpreter-mediated interaction; Pragmatic particles; Think-aloud protocols; Translation studies

Translation studies (Schäffner)    see also Pragmatic markers

Traumatic brain injury   see Clinical pragmatics

Triangulation   see Grounded theory

Troubles talk   see Emotion display; Laughter

Trust   see Adaptability

Truth   see Austin; Grice; Ideology; Model-theoretic semantics; Speech act theory; Truthfulness

Truth-conditional pragmatics   see Default interpretations

Truth-conditional semantics (Carston)    see also Analytical philosophy; Logical semantics; Possible worlds semantics; Relevance theory

Truthfulness (Vincent Marrelli)    see also Manipulation; Ọmọlúàbí

Turing machine   see Computational linguistics

Turn(-taking)   see Conversation analysis; Frame analysis; Intertextuality; Language and the law; Prosody; Silence

Typology (Comrie)    see also Boas; Contact linguistics; Deixis; Historical linguistics; Language acquisition; Language change; Language contact; Negation; Sound symbolism; Word order


U

UN language system   see Language ecology

Underspecification   see Vagueness

Understanding   see Comprehension vs. production

Unidirectionality   see Language change

Universal and transcendental pragmatics (Leilich)    see also Critical theory; Hermeneutics; Truthfulness

Universal grammar   see Language acquisition; Language change

Universals of language   see Language universals

User modeling   see Artificial intelligence; Computational pragmatics

Utterance   see Predicates and predication; Speech act theory


V

Vagueness   see Indeterminacy and negotiation; Polysemy; Tense and aspect; Truthfulness

Valency   see Dependency

Variability   see Variation

Variable rule   see Correlational sociolinguistics

Variable-rule analysis   see Statistics

Variation   see Adaptability; Bilingualism and multilingualism; Communicative style; Context and contextualization; Correlational sociolinguistics; Creole linguistics; Creoles and creolization; Dialectology; Honorifics; Language acquisition; Language change; Language dominance and minorization; Language policy, language planning and standardization; Polysemy; Register; Sociolinguistics; Variational pragmatics

Variational pragmatics (Schneider)    see also Contact linguistics; Language change

Variationist sociolinguistics   see Correlational sociolinguistics

Verb   see Communicative dynamism

Verba dicendi   see Reported speech

Vernacular   see Authenticity; Dialect

Verstehen   see Erklären vs. Verstehen

Vitality   see Motivation

Vocabulary   see Borrowing; Language acquisition

Voice   see Polyphony

Vološinov, V. N.   see Bakhtin; Deconstruction; Intertextuality; Marxist linguistics; Reported speech

Vygotsky, L. (van der Veer)


W

Whorf, B. L. (Lee)    see also Anthropological linguistics; Boas; Culture; Iconicity; Sapir

Whorfianism   see Linguistic relativity principle

Wittgenstein, L. (Leilich)    see also (The) pragmatic perspective; Analytical philosophy; Austin; Contextualism; Speech act theory

Word (Mithun)

Word order (Fried)    see also Negation; Typology

Word recognition   see Psycholinguistics; The multilingual lexicon

Workplace interaction   see Aisatsu; Applied linguistics

Written discourse   see Speaking vs. writing


X

X-bar syntax   see Chomskyan linguistics; Computational linguistics; Role and reference grammar