Akaike, H.
(1974) A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19(6), 716–723. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baayen, R. H.
(2013) Multivariate statistics. In R. J. Podesva & D. Sharma (Eds.), Research methods in linguistics (pp. 337–372). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
(2015) Fitting linear mixed effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Berger, A.
(2010) German. In R. Walker, Teaching the pronunciation of English as a lingua franca (pp. 107–110). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Brown, A.
(1988) Functional load and the teaching of pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 22(4), 593–606. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(1989) Some thoughts on intelligibility. The English Teacher, XVIII. [URL]
Cambridge University Press
(2012) English vocabulary profile. [URL]
Catford, J. C.
1987Phonetics and the teaching of pronunciation. In J. Morley (ed.) Current perspectives on pronunciation Washington, D.C.: (pp. 87–100) Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.Google Scholar
Chan, A. Y. W. & Li, D. C. S.
(2000) English and Cantonese phonology in contrast: Explaining Cantonese ESL learners’ English pronunciation problems. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 13(1), 67–85. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J. W.
(1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Cole, S.
(2002) An investigation of the role of vowel quality in oral interactions between NNSs of English as an international language. Speak Out!, 29, 28–37.Google Scholar
Collins, B., & Vandenbergen, A.-M.
(2000) Modern English pronunciation: A practical guide for speakers of Dutch. Gent, BE: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Council of Europe
(2018) Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (Companion volume with new descriptors). [URL]
Derwing, T. M. & Munro, M. J.
(1997) Accent, intelligibility, and comprehensibility: Evidence from four L1s. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 1–16. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Deterding, D.
(2013) Misunderstandings in English as a Lingua Franca: An analysis of ELF interactions in South-East Asia. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Deterding, D., & Kirkpatrick, A.
(2006) Emerging South-East Asian Englishes and intelligibility. World Englishes, 25(3–4), 391–409. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Garcia, J. M. & Cannito, M. P.
(1996) Influence of verbal and nonverbal contexts on the sentence intelligibility of a speaker with dysarthria. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 39(4), 750–760. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gureckis, T. M., & Goldstone, R. L.
(2011) Schema. In P. C. Hogan (Ed.), The Cambridge encyclopedia of the language sciences (pp. 725–727). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Holm, S.
(1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6(2), 65–70.Google Scholar
Hustad, K. C., & Beukelman, D. R.
(2001) Effects of linguistic cues and stimulus cohesion on intelligibility of severely dysarthric speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 497–510. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Jenkins, J.
(2000) The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Kennedy, S.
(2012) When non-native speakers misunderstand each other: Identifying important aspects of pronunciation. Contact, 38(2), 49–62.Google Scholar
Kim, H. & Billington, R.
(2018) Pronunciation and comprehension in English as a lingua franca communication: Effect of L1 influence in international aviation communication. Applied Linguistics, 39(2), 135–158. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Komar, S.
(2017) The relationship between the perception and production of four General British vowels by Slovene university students of English. Linguistica, 57(1), 161–170. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Laufer, B.
(1998) The development of passive and active vocabulary in a second language: Same or different?. Applied Linguistics, 19(2), 255–271. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Levis, J. M. & Cortes, V.
(2008) Minimal pairs in spoken corpora: Implications for pronunciation assessment and teaching. In C. A. Chapelle, Y. R. Chung & J. Xu (Eds.), Towards adaptive CALL: Natural language processing for diagnostic language assessment (pp. 197–208). Ames, IA: Iowa State University.Google Scholar
Luchini, P. L., & Kennedy, S.
(2013) Exploring sources of phonological unintelligibility in spontaneous speech. International Journal of English and Literature, 4(3), 79–88.Google Scholar
Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M.
(1995) Foreign accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 45(1), 73–97. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
O’Connor, J. D.
(1980) Better English pronunciation (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
O’Neal, G.
(2015) ELF intelligibility: The vowel quality factor. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 4(2), 347–358. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Osimk, R.
(2009) Decoding sounds: An experimental approach to intelligibility in ELF. Vienna English Working Papers, 18(1), 64–89.Google Scholar
Pisoni, D. B., & McLennan, C. T.
(2016) Spoken word recognition: Historical roots, current theoretical issues, and some new directions. In G. Hickok & S. L. Small (Eds.), Neurobiology of language (pp. 239–253). Tokyo: Academic Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L.
(2014) How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878–912. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Richter, K.
(2019) English-medium instruction and pronunciation: Exposure and skills development. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sewell, A.
(2017) Functional load revisited: Reinterpreting the findings of ‘lingua franca’ intelligibility studies. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 3(1), 57–79. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Thir, V.
(2021) The role of co-textual and contextual cues for intelligibility in ELF interactions. In A. Mauranen & S. Vetchinnikova (Eds.). Language change: The impact of English as a Lingua Franca. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Trofimovich, P., Isaacs, T., Kennedy, S., Saito, K., & Crowther, D.
(2016) Flawed self-assessment: Investigating self- and other-perception of second language speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(1), 122–140. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Walker, R.
(2010) Teaching the pronunciation of English as a lingua franca. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wells, J. C.
(2008) Longman pronunciation dictionary (3rd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Longman.Google Scholar
Widdowson, H. G.
(2004) Text, context, pretext: Critical issues in discourse analysis. Malden, MA: Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2019) On the subject of English: The linguistics of language use and learning. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Zoghbor, W.
(2010) The effectiveness of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC) in improving the perceived intelligibility and perceived comprehensibility of Arab learners at post-secondary level (Doctoral thesis, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK). Retrieved from [URL]