Part of
Advances in Contact Linguistics: In honour of Pieter Muysken
Edited by Norval Smith, Tonjes Veenstra and Enoch O. Aboh
[Contact Language Library 57] 2020
► pp. 6184
Adegbija, E.
2004Language policy and planning in Nigeria. Current Issues in Language Planning 5(3): 181–246. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Agheyisi, R. N.
1988The standardization of Nigerian Pidgin English. English World-Wide 9(2): 227–241. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Alobwede D’Epie, C.
1998Banning Pidgin English in Cameroon? English Today 14(1): 54–60. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Anchimbe, E. A.
2013Language Policy and Identity Construction: The Dynamics of Cameroon’s Multilingualism [Impact: Studies in Language and Society 32]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1984Revised Kono, Krio, Limba, Mende and Themne Orthographies – Workshop Held during April 24–27, 1984. Freetown, Sierra Leone: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
Arends, J., Muysken, P. C. & Smith, N. S. H.
(eds) 1995Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction [Creole Language Library 15]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Asociación Cristiana de Traducciones Biblicas
n.d. Kálara Nzamá Faŋ Guinea Ecuatorial. Bata: n.p.
Ayafor, M. & Green, M. J.
2017Cameroon Pidgin English: A Comprehensive Grammar [London Oriental and African Language Library 20]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bakker, P.
2008Pidgins versus creoles and pidgincreoles. In The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies, S. Kouwenberg & J. V. Singler (eds), 130–57. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Baldauf, R. B. & Kaplan, R. B.
2004Language Planning and Policy in Africa, Vol. 1. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2007Language Planning and Policy in Africa, Vol. 2. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Berry, J.
1961English loanwords and adaptations in Sierra Leone Krio. In Creole Language Studies II, R. B. le Page (ed.), 1–16. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Bible Society in Sierra Leone
2013Krio fɔs oli Baybul.Google Scholar
Bolekia Boleká, J.
2005La francofonía: El nuevo rostro del colonialismo en África. Salamanca: Signum S.G.E.Google Scholar
Brock-Utne, B.
2010Research and policy on the language of instruction issue in Africa. International Journal of Educational Development 30(6): 636–645. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Corum, M.
2015Substrate and Adstrate: The Origins of Spatial Semantics in West African Pidgincreoles. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Crevels, M. & Muysken, P. C.
(eds) 2009Lenguas de Bolivia, 4 Vols. La Paz: Plural editores.Google Scholar
Dako, K.
2002Student Pidgin (SP): The language of the educated male elite. Research Review from the Institute of African Studies (IAS), University of Ghana 18(2): 53–62.Google Scholar
2013Student Pidgin: A masculine code encroached on by young women. In Gender and Language in Sub-Saharan Africa: Tradition, Struggle and Change [Impact: Studies in Language and Society 33], L. L. Atanga, S. E. Ellece, L. Litosseliti & J. Sunderland (eds), 217–231. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Decker, T.
1988Juliohs Siza. Edited by N. Shrimpton and N. Sulayman, Vol. 4 [Krio Publications Series]. Umeå: Umeå University.Google Scholar
Devonish, H.
1986Language and Liberation: Creole Language Politics in the Caribbean. London: Karia Press.Google Scholar
2010The language heritage of the Caribbean: Linguistic genocide and resistance. Glossa 5(1): 1–26.Google Scholar
Faraclas, N. G.
2004Nigerian Pidgin English: Morphology and syntax. In A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol 2: Morphology and Syntax, B. Kortmann, E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, T. Mesthrie & C. Upton (eds), 828–853. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
1996Nigerian Pidgin. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
2013Nigerian Pidgin. In The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages: English-based and Dutch-based Languages, S. Michaelis, P. Maurer, M. Haspelmath & M. Huber (eds), 176–184. Oxford: OUP. [URL]> (9 June 2020).
1986Reading and Writing Nigerian Pidgin. Port Harcourt: Rivers Readers Project (RRP).Google Scholar
Finney, M. A.
2011Krio (Sierra Leone Creole). In Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, Bernd Kortmann & Kerstin Lunkenheimer (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. [URL]> (23 April 2020).
2013Krio. In The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages: English-based and Dutch-based Languages, S. Michaelis, P. Maurer, M. Haspelmath & M. Huber (eds), 1:157–166. Oxford: OUP. [URL]> (23 April 2020).
Fonka, H. M.
2016Is Cameroon Pidgin English a pidgin, a pidgincreole or a creole? Yaoundé.Google Scholar
Fyle, C. N. & Jones, E. D.
1980A Krio-English Dictionary. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Gani-Ikilama, T. O.
1990Use of Nigerian Pidgin in education: Why not? In Multilingualism, Minority Languages and Language Policy in Nigeria, E. N. Emenanjo (ed.), 219–227. Agbor, Nigeria: Central Books.Google Scholar
Gift, A.
2019Romeo and Juliet don land for pidgin. BBC News Pidgin, July 4 2019, sec. Tori. [URL]> (26 September 2019).
Hancock, I. F.
1971A Study of the Sources and Development of the Lexicon of Sierra Leone Krio. PhD dissertation, University of London.Google Scholar
1987A preliminary classification of Anglophone Atlantic creoles, with syntactic data from thirty-three representative dialects. In Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John Reinecke, G. G. Gilbert (ed.), 264–333. Honolulu HI: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
Heine, B.
1992Language policies in Africa. In Language and Society in Africa: The Theory and Practice of Sociolinguistics, R. K. Herbert (ed), 23–35. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.Google Scholar
Huber, M.
1995Ghanaian Pidgin English: An overview. English World-Wide 16(2): 215–249. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1999Ghanaian Pidgin English in Its West African Context: A Sociohistorical and Structural Analysis [Varieties of English Around the World G24]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2000Restructuring in vitro? Evidence from early Krio. In Degrees of Restructuring in Creole Languages [Creole Language Library 22], I. Neumann-Holzschuh & E. W. Schneider (eds), 275–307. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2013Ghanaian Pidgin English. In The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages: English-based and Dutch-based Languages, S. Michaelis, P. Maurer, M. Haspelmath & M. Huber (eds), 1:167–175. Oxford: OUP. [URL]> (23 April 2020).
Huber, M. & Görlach, M.
1996West African Pidgin English. English World-Wide 17(2): 239–258. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Igboanusi, H.
2008Empowering Nigerian Pidgin: A challenge for status planning? World Englishes 27(1): 68–82. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ihemere, K. U.
2006A basic description and analytic treatment of noun clauses in Nigerian Pidgin. Nordic journal of African Studies 15(3): 296–313.Google Scholar
Jones, E. D.
1968Some tense, mode and aspects markers in Krio. African Language Review 7: 86–89.Google Scholar
Juffermans, K. & McGlynn, C.
2010A sociolinguistic profile of The Gambia. Sociolinguistic Studies 3(3): 329–355. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kouega, J.-P.
2008A Dictionary of Cameroon Pidgin English Usage: Pronunciation, Grammar and Vocabulary [Lincom Studies in Pidgin & Creole Linguistics 9]. Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F. & Fennig, C. D.
(eds) 2013Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas TX: SIL International. [URL]> (30 May 2013).
Lipski, J. M.
1992Pidgin English usage in Equatorial Guinea (Fernando Poo). English World-Wide 13(1): 33–57. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lynn, M.
1984Commerce, christianity and the origins of the “Creoles” of Fernando Po. The Journal of African History 25(3): 257–278. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mbangwana, P.
1983The scope and role of Pidgin English in Cameroon. In A Sociolinguistic Profile of Urban Centers in Cameroon, E. L. Koenig, E. N. Chia & J. F. Povey (eds), 79–92. Los Angeles CA: Crossroad Press.Google Scholar
Molindo, E. A.
1996Cameroon Pidgin Bible. Yaoundé: n.p.
Momoh, A. & Adejumobi, S.
2002The National Question in Nigeria: Comparative Perspectives. Aldershot Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Morgades Besari, T.
2011Los criollos (Fernandinos-Kriös) de Guinea Ecuatorial. La Gaceta de Guinea Ecuatorial, April 2011, No. 162 edition, sec. Misceláneas.Google Scholar
Muysken, P. C.
(ed.) 1981aGenerative Studies on Creole Languages [Studies in Generative Grammar 6]. Dordrecht: Foris. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1981bHalfway between Quechua and Spanish: The case for relexification. In Historicity and Variation in Creole Studies, A. Valdman & A. Highfield (eds), 52–78. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma.Google Scholar
(ed.) 2008From Linguistic Areas to Areal Linguistics [Studies in Language Companion Series 90]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Muysken, P. C. & Smith, N. S. H.
(eds) 1986Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis: Papers from the Amsterdam Creole Workshop, April 1985 [Creole Language Library 1]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(eds) 2015Surviving the Middle Passage: The West Africa-Surinam Sprachbund [Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs (TiLSM) 275]. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Neba, A. N., Chibaka, E. F. & Atindogbé, G.
2006Cameroon Pidgin English (CPE) as a tool for empowerment and national development. African Study Monographs 27: 39–61.Google Scholar
Newman, P.
1987Hausa and the Chadic languages. In The World’s Major Languages, B. Comrie (ed.), 705–723. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Ngefac, A.
2010Linguistic choices in postcolonial multilingual Cameroon. Nordic Journal of African Studies 19(3): 149–164.Google Scholar
2016Sociolinguistic and Structural Aspects of Cameroon Creole English. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
Nkengasong, N.
2016A Grammar of Cameroonian Pidgin. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
Nordén, A. H.
2016Epistemic Modality in Ghanaian Pidgin English. MA thesis, University of Stockholm. [URL]> (26 September 2019).
Ojarikre, A.
2013Perspectives and problems of codifying Nigerian Pidgin English orthography. Developing Country Studies 3(12): 126–133.Google Scholar
Osei-Tutu, K. O. A.
2008Exploring Meaning in Students’ P(SP). MPhil thesis, University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
2016Lexical borrowing in Ghanaian Student Pidgin (GSP) – The case of Akan loanwords and loan translations. In Celebrating Multiple Identities: Opting out of Neocolonial Monolinguism, Monoculturalism and Mono-identification in the Greater Caribbean, N. Faraclas, R. Severing, C. Weijer, E. Echteld, W. Rutgers & R. Dupey (eds), 47–54. Willemstad: University of Curaçao and Fundashon pa Planifikashon di Idioma.
Perrois, L.
1972La statuaire Fang, Gabon. Paris: O.R.S.T.O.M.Google Scholar
Schröder, A.
2003Status, Functions, and Prospects of Pidgin English: An Empirical Approach to Language Dynamics in Cameroon. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.Google Scholar
Smith, N. S. H.
2015Ingredient X: The shared African lexical element in the English-lexifier Atlantic Creoles, and the theory of rapid creolization. In Surviving the Middle Passage: The West Africa-Surinam Sprachbund [Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs (TiLSM) 275], P. C. Muysken & N. S. H. Smith (eds), 67–106. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
The World Bank
2018Education statistics. World Bank Open Data 2018 <[URL]> (4 April 2018).
2018Global Education Monitoring Report. 2017/8 GEM Report – Accountability in Education: Meeting Our Commitments 2018 <[URL]> (4 April 2018).
United Nations
2017World population prospects: The 2017 revision, key findings and advance tables [Working Paper ESA/P/WP/248]. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. [URL]> (24 April 2020).
van Sluijs, R., van den Berg, M. C. & Muysken, P. C.
2016Exploring genealogical blends: The Surinamese Creole cluster and the Virgin Island Dutch Creole cluster. Lingua 178: 84–103. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Vydrin, V.
2013Bamana Reference Corpus (BRC). Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 95: 75–80. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wyse, A. J. G.
1991The Krio of Sierra Leone: An Interpretive History. Washington DC: Howard University Press.Google Scholar
Yakpo, K.
2009aA Grammar of Pichi. PhD dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen. < DOI logo> (27 March 2020).Google Scholar
2009bComplexity revisited: Pichi (Equatorial Guinea) and Spanish in contact. In Simplicity and Complexity in Creoles and Pidgins, N. G. Faraclas & T. Klein (eds), 183–215. London: Battlebridge.Google Scholar
2010Gramática del Pichi [Laboratorio de Recursos Orales 13]. Barcelona: Ceiba Ediciones.Google Scholar
2012aBetwixt and between: Causatives in the English-lexicon creoles of West Africa and the Caribbean. In Analytical Causatives: From “Make” to “Laskma”, J. Leino & R. von Waldenfels (eds), 9–39. Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
2012bReiteration in Pichi: Forms, functions and areal-typological perspectives. In The Morphosyntax of Reiteration in Creole and Non-creole Languages [Creole Language Library 43], E. O. Aboh, N. S. H. Smith & A. Zribi-Hertz (eds), 251–284. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2013aPichi. In The Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures: English-based and Dutch-based Languages, S. Michaelis, P. Maurer, M. Haspelmath & M. Huber (eds), 1:194–205. Oxford: OUP. [URL]> (2 March 2018).
2013bWayward daughter: Language contact in the emergence of Pichi (Equatorial Guinea). Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 34(2): 275–299. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2016aO estatuto do pichi na Guiné Equatorial. PLATÔ (Revista Digital do Instituto Internacional da Língua Portuguesa), Glotopolítica na Guiné Equatorial 3(6): 20–40.Google Scholar
2016b“The only language we speak really well”. The English creoles of Equatorial Guinea and West Africa at the intersection of language ideologies and language policies. In Exploring Glottopolitical Dynamics in Africa: The Spanish Colonial Past and Beyond, S. Castillo-Rodríguez & L. Morgenthaler García (eds). Special issue of International Journal of the Sociology of Language 239: 211–233. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2018¿El nacimiento de una lengua afrohispana?: La influencia del español en el idioma criollo inglés de Guinea Ecuatorial. In Trans-afrohispanismos: Puentes culturales críticos entre África, Latinoamérica y España [Foro Hispánico 58], D. Odartey-Wellington (ed.), 243–259. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Yakpo, K. & Muysken, P. C.
(eds) 2017Boundaries and Bridges: Language Contact in Multilingual Ecologies [Language Contact and Bilingualism 14]. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Yankson, S.
2018Language Contact and Change in Linguistically Heterogeneous Urban Communities. The Case of Akan in Accra. PhD dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen.Google Scholar
de Zarco, Mariano
1938Dialecto Inglés-Africano o Broken-English de La Colonia Española Del Golfo de Guinea. Turnhout, Belgium: H. Proost.Google Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 1 other publications

Yakpo, Kofi
2024. The indigenization of Ghanaian Pidgin English. World Englishes 43:1  pp. 182 ff. DOI logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 23 march 2024. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.