Turkish-German code-switching patterns revisited
What naturalistic data can(not) tell us
This paper offers a review of what we know about Turkish-German code-switching patterns as found in naturalistic conversations, based on the typology of code-switching offered by Muysken (2000, 2013). Providing information about code-switching patterns that are commonly found in naturalistic data is important as it can be used to inform research into language switching, that is, externally induced switching between languages in experimental settings (Gullberg, Indefrey & Muysken 2009). Such experimental evidence on language switching is needed to supplement the evidence that is available from naturalistic data, but researchers using experimental approaches are not always aware of the range of intrasentential code-switching patterns which occur naturalistically, nor of the ways in which this variability has been captured in Muysken’s typology, although this typology is highly relevant for theories of processing and cognitive control in bilinguals (Treffers-Daller 2009; Green & Wei 2014; Hofweber, Marinis & Treffers-Daller 2016, 2019). This paper aims to bridge the gap between researchers working on naturalistic code-switching and those working on language switching by summarizing what naturalistic data can tell us and which questions can only be answered with experimental approaches.
- 1.Introduction: Explaining variability in code-switching patterns
- 2.The four types of code-switching
- 2.3Congruent lexicalisation
- 3.Discussion and conclusion