Article published In:
English World-Wide
Vol. 44:3 (2023) ► pp.435469


Travis, Catherine E., James Grama, and Simon Gonzalez
In Progress. Sydney Speaks Corpora. DOI logo
Horvath, Barbara
1985Variation in Australian English: The Sociolects of Sydney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Australian Bureau of Statistics
2016 “Census of Population and Housing, 1991”. October 1, 1993 〈[URL]〉 (accessed September 25, 2015).
Baldassar, Loretta
2004 “Italians in Australia”. In Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, and Ian A. Skoggard, eds. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 850–864.Google Scholar
Bates, Douglas, Martin Mächler, Ben Bolker, Steve Walker, Rune Haubo Bojesen Christensen, Henrik Singmann, Bin Dai, Fabian Scheipl, Gabor Grothendieck, Peter Green, and John Fox
2019lme4: Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using ‘Eigen’ and S4. R package version 1.1–28[URL]〉 (accessed February 9, 2022).
Bell, Allan, and Janet Holmes
1992 “H-Droppin’: Two Sociolinguistic Variables in New Zealand English”. Australian Journal of Linguistics 121: 223–248. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Boberg, Charles
2004 “Real and Apparent Time in Language Change: Late Adoption of Changes in Montreal French”. American Speech 791: 250–269. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cheshire, Jenny, Sue Fox, Paul Kerswill, and Eivind Torgersen
2008 “Ethnicity, Friendship Network and Social Practices as the Motor of Dialect Change: Linguistic Innovation in London”. Sociolinguistica 221: 1–23. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cheshire, Jenny, Paul Kerswill, Sue Fox, and Eivind Torgersen
2011 “Contact, the Feature Pool and the Speech Community: The Emergence of Multicultural London English”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 151: 151–196. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cole, Amanda
2020 “Co-Variation, Style and Social Meaning: The Implicational Relationship Between (h) and (ing) in Debden, Essex”. Language Variation and Change 321: 349–371. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Drummond, Rob
2012 “Aspects of Identity in a Second Language: ING Variation in the Speech of Polish Migrants Living in Manchester, UK”. Language Variation and Change 241: 107–133. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Du Bois, John W., Stephan Schuetze-Coburn, Susanna Cumming, and Danae Paolino
1993 “Outline of Discourse Transcription”. In Jane Edwards, and Martin Lampert, eds. Talking Data: Transcription and Coding in Discourse. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 45–89.Google Scholar
Fischer, John L.
1958 “Social Influences on the Choice of a Linguistic Variant”. Word 141: 47–56. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Forrest, Jon
2017 “The Dynamic Interaction Between Lexical and Contextual Frequency: A Case Study of (ING)”. Language Variation and Change 291: 129–156. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Forrest, Jon, and Walt Wolfram
2019 “The Status of (ING) in African American Language: A Quantitative Analysis of Social Factors and Internal Constraints”. American Speech 941: 72–89. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fromont, Robert, and Jennifer Hay
2012 “LaBB-CAT: An Annotation Store”. Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Workshop 2012, Dunedin, New Zealand, 113–117. (Version 20221013.1114).Google Scholar
Garside, Roger
1987 “The CLAWS Word-tagging System”. In Roger Garside, Geoffrey Leech, and Geoffrey Sampson, eds. The Computational Analysis of English: A Corpus-Based Approach. London: Longman, 30–41.Google Scholar
Grama, James, Catherine E. Travis, and Simon Gonzalez
2020 “Ethnolectal and Community Change Ov(er) Time: Word-final (er) in Australian English”. Australian Journal of Linguistics 401: 346–368. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2021 “Ethnic Variation in Real Time: Change in Australian English Diphthongs”. In Hans Van de Velde, Nanna Haug Hilton, and Remco Knooihuizen, eds. Studies in Language Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 292–314. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hazen, Kirk
2006 “IN/ING Variable”. In Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 581–584. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2008 “(ING): A Vernacular Baseline for English in Appalachia”. American Speech 831: 116–140. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ho, Christina, and Chris Bonnor
2018 “Institutionalised Separation: The Impact of Selective Schools”. 〈[URL]〉 (accessed May 31, 2019).
Horvath, Barbara
1985Variation in Australian English: The Sociolects of Sydney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Houston, Ann Celeste
1985 “Continuity and Change in English Morphology: The Variable (ING). PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Jupp, James
2001The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Labov, William
1984 “Field Methods of the Project on Linguistic Change and Variation”. In John Baugh, and Joel Sherzer, eds. Language in Use: Readings in Sociolinguistics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 28–53.Google Scholar
2001Principles of Linguistic Change: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Laferriere, Martha
1979 “Ethnicity in Phonological Variation and Change”. Language 551: 603–617. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lausberg, Hedda, and Han Sloetjes
2009 “Coding Gestural Behavior with the NEUROGES-ELAN System”. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 411: 841–849. (Version 6.4). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lee, David
1989 “Sociolinguistic Variation in the Speech of Brisbane Adolescents. Australian Journal of Linguistics 91: 51–72. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
McMillan, Julie, Adrian Beavis, and Frank L. Jones
2009 “The AUSEI06: A New Socioeconomic Index for Australia”. Journal of Sociology 451: 123–149. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mechler, Johana, James Grama, Lea Bauernfeind, Mirjam E. Eiswirth, and Isabelle Buchstaller
2022 “Towards an Empirically-Based Model of Age-Graded Behaviour: Trac(ing) Linguistic Malleability Across the Entire Adult Life-Span”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics (Selected Papers from NWAV 49) 281: Article 12.Google Scholar
Penry Williams, Cara
2020Folklinguistics and Social Meaning in Australian English. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Poplack, Shana, and Marjory Meechan
1998 “Introduction: How Languages Fit Together in Codemixing”. International Journal of Bilingualism 21: 127–138. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Qiao, Gan, and Catherine E. Travis
2022 “Ethnicity and Social Class in Pre-Vocalic the in Australian English”. In Rosey Billington, ed. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology. Australasian Speech Science and Technology Association, 56–60.Google Scholar
R Core Team
2019R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
Ricatti, Francesco
2018Italians in Australia: History, Memory, Identity. London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schleef, Erik, Miriam Meyerhoff, and Lynn Clark
Sharma, Devyani
2020 “Prestige Factors in Contact-Induced Grammatical Change”. In Karen V. Beaman, Isabelle Buchstaller, Susan Fox, and James A. Walker, eds. Advancing Socio-Grammatical Variation and Change: In Honour of Jenny Cheshire. Oxon: Routledge, 55–72. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Shnukal, Anna
1982 “You’re Gettin’ Somethink for Nothing: Two Phonological Variables of Australian English”. Australian Journal of Linguistics 21: 197–212. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Shopen, Timothy
1978 “Research on the Variable (ing) in Canberra Australia”. Talanya 51: 42–52.Google Scholar
Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt, Douglas Biber, Jesse Egbert, and Karlien Franco
2016 “Toward More Accountability: Modeling Ternary Genitive Variation in Late Modern English”. Language Variation and Change 281: 1–29. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tamminga, Meredith
2016 “Persistence in Phonological and Morphological Variation”. Language Variation and Change 281: 335–356. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Torres Cacoullos, Rena, and Catherine E. Travis
2019 “Variationist Typology: Shared Probabilistic Constraints Across (Non-)Null Subject Languages”. Linguistics 571: 653–692. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Travis, Catherine E., and Rena Torres Cacoullos
2021 “Categories and Frequency: Cognition Verbs in Spanish Subject Expression”. Languages 61: 126. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Trudgill, Peter
1972 “Sex, Covert Prestige and Linguistic Change in the Urban British English of Norwich”. Language in Society 11: 179–195. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Van Hofwegen, Janneke, and Walt Wolfram
2010 “Coming of Age in African American English: A Longitudinal Study”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 141: 427–455. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Suzanne Evans
2012 “Real-time Evidence for Age Grad(ing) in Late Adolescence”. Language Variation and Change 241: 179–202. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wells, John C.
1982Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University. DOI logoGoogle Scholar