Article published In:
ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics
Vol. 166:2 (2015) ► pp.278306
Alderson, J.C
(2005) Diagnosing foreign language proficiency: The interface between learning and assessment. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
Bachman, L.F
(1990) Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Beglar, D
(2010) A Rasch-based validation of the Vocabulary Size Test. Language Testing, 27(1), 101–118. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Elgort, I
(2011) Deliberate learning and vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Language Learning, 61(2), 367–413. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2013) Effects of L1 definitions and cognate status of test items on the Vocabulary Size Test. Language Testing, 30(2), 253–272. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Embretson, S.E
(1996) The new rules of measurement. Psychological Assessment, 8(4), 341–349. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Eyckmans, J
(2004) Measuring receptive vocabulary size: Reliability and validity of the yes/no vocabulary test for French-speaking learners of Dutch. Utrecht: LOT.Google Scholar
Gyllstad, H
(2012) Validating the Vocabulary Size Test. A classical test theory approach. Poster presented at The Ninth Annual Conference of EALTA, Innsbruck, Austria, 31 May – 3 June. Retrieved from: [URL]
Horst, M., Cobb, T., & Meara, P
(1998) Beyond A Clockwork Orange: Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 111, 207–223.Google Scholar
Huibregtse, I., Admiraal, W., & Meara, P
(2002) Scores on a yes-no vocabulary test: Correction for guessing and response style. Language Testing, 19(3), 227–245. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kamimoto, T
(2008) Nation’s vocabulary levels test and its successors: A re-appraisal. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Wales, Swansea.Google Scholar
Kane, M.T
(2013) Validating the interpretations and uses of test scores. Journal of Educational Measurement, 50(1), 1–73. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z
(2004) Testing vocabulary knowledge: Size, strength, and computer adaptiveness. Language Learning, 54(3), 399–436. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meara, P
(1992) EFL vocabulary tests. ERIC Clearinghouse.Google Scholar
(1996) The dimensions of lexical competence. In G. Brown, K. Malmkjaer, & J. Williams (Eds.), Performance and competence in second language acquisition (pp. 35–53). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Meara, P., & Buxton, B
(1987) An alternative to multiple choice vocabulary tests. Language Testing, 4(2), 142–154. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Messick, S
(1995) Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons’ responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50(9), 741–749. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nation, I.S.P
(2006) How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne Des Langues Vivantes, 63(1), 59–82. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(1990) Teaching and learning vocabulary. Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
Nation, I.S.P., & Beglar, D
(2007) A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31(7), 9–13.Google Scholar
Nation, I.S.P., & Gu, P.Y
(2007) Focus on vocabulary. Sydney: NCELTR Publications.Google Scholar
Nation, P
(1993) Using dictionaries to estimate vocabulary size: essential, but rarely followed, procedures. Language Testing, 10(1), 27–40. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nation, I.S.P
(2012) Vocabulary size test instructions and description. Retrieved from [URL]. Last revised on October 23, 2012.Google Scholar
Paul, P.V., Stallman, A.C., & O’Rourke, J.P
(1990) Using three test formats to assess good and poor reader’s word knowledge. Technical Report No. 509 of the Center for the Study of Reading. University of Illinois. Retrieved from [URL]Google Scholar
Pellicer-Sánchez, A., & Schmitt, N
(2012) Scoring Yes–No vocabulary tests: Reaction time vs. nonword approaches. Language Testing, 29(4), 489–509. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Read, J
(1998) Validating a test to measure depth of vocabulary knowledge. In A.J. Kunnan (Ed.) Validation in language assessment (pp.41–61). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
(2000) Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rupp, A.A., Ferne, T., & Choi, H
(2006) How assessing reading comprehension with multiple-choice questions shapes the construct: A cognitive processing perspective. Language Testing, 23(4), 441–474. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Saragi, T., Nation, I.S.P., & Meister, F
(1978) Vocabulary learning and reading. System, 61, 72–78. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N
(2010) Researching vocabulary: A vocabulary research manual. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., & Meara, P
(1997) Researching vocabulary through a word knowledge framework: Word associations and verbal suffixes. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 191, 17–36. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., Ng, J.W.C., & Garras, J
(2011) The word associates format: Validation evidence. Language Testing, 28(1), 105–126. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D
(2014) A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching. Language Teaching, 47(4), 484–503. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D., & Clapham, C
(2001) Developing and exploring the behaviour of two new versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test. Language Testing, 18(1), 55–88. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stenius Staehr, L
(2009) Vocabulary knowledge and advanced listening comprehension in English as a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 311, 577–607. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stewart, J
(2012) A multiple-choice test of active vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 53–59. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2014) Do multiple-choice options inflate estimates of vocabulary size on the VST? Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(3), 271–282. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stewart, J., & White, D.A
(2011) Estimating guessing effects on the vocabulary levels test for differing degrees of word knowledge. TESOL Quarterly, 45(2), 370–380. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Uden, J., Schmitt, D., & Schmitt, N
(2014) Jumping from the highest graded readers to ungraded novels: Four case studies. Reading in a Foreign Language, 26(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
Waring, R., & Takaki, M
(2003) At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader. Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(2), 130–163.Google Scholar
Weir, C.J
(2005) Language testing and validation. Houndmills: Palgrave McMillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T.S
(1996) Assessing second language vocabulary knowledge: Depth versus breadth. Canadian Modern Language Review, 53(1), 13–40. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wood, B
(1928) New York experiments with new-type modern language tests. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Zhang, X
(2013) The I don’t know option in the Vocabulary Size Test. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 790–811. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 70 other publications

Alzahrani, Alaa
2023. LexArabic: A receptive vocabulary size test to estimate Arabic proficiency. Behavior Research Methods DOI logo
Aviad-Levitzky, Tami, Batia Laufer & Zahava Goldstein
2019. The New Computer Adaptive Test of Size and Strength (CATSS): Development and Validation. Language Assessment Quarterly 16:3  pp. 345 ff. DOI logo
B. Silva, Breno
2022. The Importance of General and Academic Vocabulary Learning. In Writing to Learn Academic Words [Second Language Learning and Teaching, ],  pp. 1 ff. DOI logo
B. Silva, Breno
2022. Study 1—The Assessment of Academic Vocabulary: Developing a Reliable Academic Placement Tool. In Writing to Learn Academic Words [Second Language Learning and Teaching, ],  pp. 81 ff. DOI logo
Bardel, Camilla, Henrik Gyllstad & Jörgen Tholin
2023. Research on foreign language learning, teaching, and assessment in Sweden 2012–2021. Language Teaching 56:2  pp. 223 ff. DOI logo
Busby, Nicole Louise
2021. Words from where?. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 172:1  pp. 58 ff. DOI logo
Busby, Nicole Louise
2024. Exploring the Effects of Early Extramural English Exposure on the Vocabulary Size of University Students. Education Sciences 14:4  pp. 372 ff. DOI logo
Dang, Thi Ngoc Yen, Duy Van Vu & Thi My Hang Nguyen
2023. Researching Vocabulary: Mixed Methods Research. In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics,  pp. 1 ff. DOI logo
De Wilde, Vanessa
2023. The auditory picture vocabulary test for English L2: A spoken receptive meaning-recognition test intended for Dutch-speaking L2 learners of English. Language Teaching Research  pp. 136216882211474 ff. DOI logo
Dong, Yang, Yi Tang, Sammy Xiao-Ying Wu, Wei-Yang Dong & Zhen Li
2020. Longitudinal Effects of Mediums of Word Explanation on L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies Among Chinese Grade-7 Students. Frontiers in Psychology 11 DOI logo
Duff, Dawna & Melissa Brydon
2020. Estimates of individual differences in vocabulary size in English: how many words are needed to ‘close the vocabulary gap’?. Journal of Research in Reading 43:4  pp. 454 ff. DOI logo
Ha, Hung Tan
2021. A Rasch-based validation of the Vietnamese version of the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test. Language Testing in Asia 11:1 DOI logo
İnözü, Julide & Sehnaz Sahinkarakas
2016. Exploring Relations between Pre-Service English Teachers’ Psychological and Social Well-Being and their Perceptions of Positive Classroom Environment. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics 2:2  pp. 79 ff. DOI logo
Janebi Enayat, Mostafa & Esmat Babaii
2018. Reliable predictors of reduced redundancy test performance: The interaction between lexical bonds and test takers’ depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. Language Testing 35:1  pp. 121 ff. DOI logo
Koizumi, Rie & Yo In’nami
2020. Structural Equation Modeling of Vocabulary Size and Depth Using Conventional and Bayesian Methods. Frontiers in Psychology 11 DOI logo
Kremmel, Benjamin
2016. Word Families and Frequency Bands in Vocabulary Tests: Challenging Conventions. TESOL Quarterly 50:4  pp. 976 ff. DOI logo
2017. What Type of Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Reading Comprehension: Word Meaning Recall or Word Meaning Recognition?. The Modern Language Journal 101:4  pp. 729 ff. DOI logo
Mainz, Nina, Zeshu Shao, Marc Brysbaert & Antje S. Meyer
2017. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds. Frontiers in Psychology 8 DOI logo
Masrai, Ahmed
2019. Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Revisited: Evidence for High-, Mid-, and Low-Frequency Vocabulary Knowledge. SAGE Open 9:2  pp. 215824401984518 ff. DOI logo
Masrai, Ahmed
2022. The Development and Validation of a Lemma-Based Yes/No Vocabulary Size Test. SAGE Open 12:1  pp. 215824402210743 ff. DOI logo
Masrai, Ahmed & James Milton
2018. Measuring the contribution of academic and general vocabulary knowledge to learners' academic achievement. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 31  pp. 44 ff. DOI logo
Masrai, Ahmed & James Milton
2019. How many words do you need to speak Arabic? An Arabic vocabulary size test. The Language Learning Journal 47:5  pp. 519 ff. DOI logo
McLean, Stuart
2018. Evidence for the Adoption of the Flemma as an Appropriate Word Counting Unit. Applied Linguistics 39:6  pp. 823 ff. DOI logo
Milliner, Brett, Kriss Lange, Joshua Matthews & Riko Umeki
2024. Examining EFL learners’ comprehension of derivational forms: The role of overlap with base word knowledge, word frequency, and contextual support. Language Teaching Research DOI logo
Nall, Matthew, Ari Huhta & Behzad Mansouri
2022. Close‐Ended Vocabulary Assessments. In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching,  pp. 1 ff. DOI logo
Peters, Elke, Tom Velghe & Tinne Van Rompaey
2019. The VocabLab tests. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 170:1  pp. 53 ff. DOI logo
Peters, Elke & Stuart Webb
Petrescu, Maria Claudia & Rena Helms-Park
2018. The Lexical Development of Canadian-Born Romanian L1 Bilingual Kindergarteners. Languages 3:3  pp. 33 ff. DOI logo
Puimège, Eva & Elke Peters
2019. Learning L2 vocabulary from audiovisual input: an exploratory study into incidental learning of single words and formulaic sequences. The Language Learning Journal 47:4  pp. 424 ff. DOI logo
Qi, Shiwei, Mark Feng Teng & Ailan Fu
2022. LexCH: a quick and reliable receptive vocabulary size test for Chinese Learners. Applied Linguistics Review 0:0 DOI logo
Reynolds, Barry Lee, Ying-Chun Shih & Wei-Hua Wu
2018. Modeling Taiwanese adolescent learners' English vocabulary acquisition and retention: The washback effect of the College Entrance Examination Center's reference word list. English for Specific Purposes 52  pp. 47 ff. DOI logo
Reynolds, Barry Lee, Wei-Hua Wu & Ying-Chun Shih
2020. Which Elements Matter? Constructing Word Cards for English Vocabulary Growth. SAGE Open 10:2  pp. 215824402091951 ff. DOI logo
Robles-García, Pablo
2020. 3K-LEx. Desarrollo y validación de una prueba de amplitud léxica en español. Journal of Spanish Language Teaching 7:1  pp. 64 ff. DOI logo
Robles‐García, Pablo
2022. Receptive vocabulary knowledge in L2 learners of Spanish: The role of high‐frequency words. Foreign Language Annals 55:4  pp. 963 ff. DOI logo
Robles-García, Pablo, Stuart McLean, Jeffrey Stewart, Ji-young Shin & Claudia Helena Sánchez-Gutiérrez
2024. The Development and Initial Validation of O-WSVLT, a Meaning-Recall Online L2 Spanish Vocabulary Levels Test. Language Assessment Quarterly 21:2  pp. 181 ff. DOI logo
Robles-García, Pablo, Glen H. Wallace & Claudia Helena Sánchez-Gutiérrez
2023. 3K-LEx-MC. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 174:1  pp. 135 ff. DOI logo
Roche, Thomas & Michael Harrington
2018. Offshore and onsite placement testing for English pathway programmes. Journal of Further and Higher Education 42:3  pp. 415 ff. DOI logo
2021. Lexize: A test to quickly assess vocabulary knowledge in Finnish. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 62:6  pp. 806 ff. DOI logo
Schmitt, Norbert, Karen Dunn, Barry O’Sullivan, Laurence Anthony & Benjamin Kremmel
2021. Introducing Knowledge‐based Vocabulary Lists (KVL). TESOL Journal 12:4 DOI logo
Schmitt, Norbert, Paul Nation & Benjamin Kremmel
2020. Moving the field of vocabulary assessment forward: The need for more rigorous test development and validation. Language Teaching 53:1  pp. 109 ff. DOI logo
Schmitt, Norbert & Diane Schmitt
2020. Vocabulary in Language Teaching, DOI logo
Sevigny, Paul, Lindsay Mack, Lance Stilp & Maiko Berger
2024. High-Frequency Vocabulary: Moving From Recognition to Recall Level on Quizlet. Sage Open 14:2 DOI logo
Shafi, Sehrish & Sam Hellmuth
2024. Stress Placement in English Loanwords by Speakers of Mirpur Pahari in the UK. In The Phonetics and Phonology of Heritage Languages,  pp. 107 ff. DOI logo
Silva, Breno B. & Agnieszka Otwinowska
2019. VST as a reliable academic placement tool despite cognate inflation effects. English for Specific Purposes 54  pp. 35 ff. DOI logo
Stewart, Jeffrey, Henrik Gyllstad, Christopher Nicklin & Stuart McLean
2024. Establishing meaning recall and meaning recognition vocabulary knowledge as distinct psychometric constructs in relation to reading proficiency. Language Testing 41:1  pp. 89 ff. DOI logo
Stewart, Jeffrey, Stuart McLean & Brandon Kramer
2017. A Response to Holster and Lake Regarding Guessing and the Rasch Model. Language Assessment Quarterly 14:1  pp. 69 ff. DOI logo
Stewart, Jeffrey, Tim Stoeckel, Stuart McLean, Paul Nation & Geoffrey G. Pinchbeck
2021. WHAT THE RESEARCH SHOWS ABOUT WRITTEN RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY TESTING. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 43:2  pp. 462 ff. DOI logo
Stoeckel, Tim, Phil Bennett & Stuart Mclean
2016. Is “I Don't Know” a Viable Answer Choice on the Vocabulary Size Test?. TESOL Quarterly 50:4  pp. 965 ff. DOI logo
Stoeckel, Tim, Hung Tan Ha, Duyen Thi Bich Nguyen & Christopher Nicklin
2024. Can an extended-matching second-language vocabulary test format bridge the gap between meaning-recognition and meaning-recall?. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics 3:2  pp. 100109 ff. DOI logo
Stoeckel, Tim, Tomoko Ishii, Young Ae Kim, Hung Tan Ha, Nam Thi Phuong Ho & Stuart McLean
2023. A comparison of contextualized and non-contextualized meaning-recall vocabulary test formats. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics 2:3  pp. 100075 ff. DOI logo
Stoeckel, Tim, Stuart McLean & Paul Nation
2021. LIMITATIONS OF SIZE AND LEVELS TESTS OF WRITTEN RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 43:1  pp. 181 ff. DOI logo
Stoeckel, Tim, Jeffrey Stewart, Stuart McLean, Tomoko Ishii, Brandon Kramer & Yuko Matsumoto
2019. The relationship of four variants of the Vocabulary Size Test to a criterion measure of meaning recall vocabulary knowledge. System 87  pp. 102161 ff. DOI logo
Stoeckel, Tim & Tomomi Sukigara
2018. A Serial Multiple‐Choice Format Designed to Reduce Overestimation of Meaning‐Recall Knowledge on the Vocabulary Size Test. TESOL Quarterly 52:4  pp. 1050 ff. DOI logo
Sun, Ting & Hyunjeong Nam
2023. Variations in Vocabulary Depth Among Second Language Learners with Comparable Vocabulary Breadths: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 52:6  pp. 2473 ff. DOI logo
Tam, Ho I (Anna) & Barry Lee Reynolds
2023. The relationship between extramural English engagement and the vocabulary size of L1 Cantonese speakers in Macau. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 174:1  pp. 49 ff. DOI logo
Urdaniz, Raquel Perez & Sophia Skoufaki
2022. Spanish L1 EFL learners’ recognition knowledge of English academic vocabulary: The role of cognateness, word frequency and length. Applied Linguistics Review 13:4  pp. 661 ff. DOI logo
Vicary, Anne & Jeanine Treffers-Daller
2024. Reading against all odds: creative coping strategies of international students in HE. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism  pp. 1 ff. DOI logo
Vilkaitė, Laura
2017. Incidental acquisition of collocations in L2. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 168:2  pp. 248 ff. DOI logo
Warnby, Marcus
2022. Receptive academic vocabulary knowledge and extramural English involvement – is there a correlation?. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 173:1  pp. 120 ff. DOI logo
Warnby, Marcus
2023. Academic vocabulary knowledge among adolescents in university preparatory programmes. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 61  pp. 101203 ff. DOI logo
Warnby, Marcus, Hans Malmström & Kajsa Yang Hansen
2023. Linking scores from two written receptive English academic vocabulary tests—The VLT-Ac and the AVT. Language Testing 40:3  pp. 548 ff. DOI logo
Yunjiu, Luo, Wei Wei & Ying Zheng
2022. Artificial Intelligence-Generated and Human Expert-Designed Vocabulary Tests: A Comparative Study. SAGE Open 12:1  pp. 215824402210821 ff. DOI logo
Z Szabo, Csaba
2016. Exploring the Mental Lexicon of the Multilingual: Vocabulary Size, Cognate Recognition and Lexical Access in the L1, L2 and L3. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics 2:2  pp. 1 ff. DOI logo
Zeng, Yuntao, Qiuxia Lu, Matthew P. Wallace, Yawei Guo, Chun-Wai Fan & Xiaofei Chen
2022. Understanding Sustainable Development of English Vocabulary Acquisition: Evidence from Chinese EFL Learners. Sustainability 14:11  pp. 6532 ff. DOI logo
Zhang, Haiwei, Peijian Paul Sun, Xueyan Zhang, Silin Fan & Yunji Zhang
2023. A Systematic Review of Chinese Character Size Tests From 1930 to 2021. SAGE Open 13:3 DOI logo
Zhang, Haiwei, Peng Sun, Yaowaluk Bianglae & Winda Widiawati
2024. The development of a Chinese vocabulary proficiency test (CVPT) for learners of Chinese as a second/foreign language . Language Testing 41:2  pp. 412 ff. DOI logo
Zhang, Pengchong & Suzanne Graham
2020. Vocabulary learning through listening: Comparing L2 explanations, teacher codeswitching, contrastive focus-on-form and incidental learning. Language Teaching Research 24:6  pp. 765 ff. DOI logo
Zhang, Songshan & Xian Zhang
2022. The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and L2 reading/listening comprehension: A meta-analysis. Language Teaching Research 26:4  pp. 696 ff. DOI logo
Zhang, Xian, Jianda Liu & Haiyang Ai
2020. Pseudowords and guessing in the Yes/No format vocabulary test. Language Testing 37:1  pp. 6 ff. DOI logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 2 june 2024. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.