Adams, Sean A.
2020Greek Genres and Jewish Authors: Negotiating Literary Culture in the Greco-Roman Era. Waco: Baylor University Press.Google Scholar
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
2007Grammars in Contact: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Grammars in Contact: A Cross-Linguistic Typology ed. by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald & Robert M. W. Dixon, 1–66. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Aitken, James K.
2014The Language of the Septuagint and Jewish-Greek Identity. The Jewish-Greek Tradition in Antiquity and the Byzantine Empire ed. by James K. Aitken & James Carleton Paget, 120–134. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bar-Asher Siegal, Elitzur A.
2013Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Münster: Ugarit.Google Scholar
Behr, John
2008Social and Historical Setting. The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature ed. by Frances Young, Lewis Ayres & Andrew Louth, 53–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bentein, Klaas
2016Verbal Periphrasis in Ancient Greek: Have- and Be- Constructions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Blass, Friederich & Albert Debrunner
1961 [1 1896] A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. A Translation and Revision of the Ninth-Tenth German Edition Incorporating Supplementary Notes of A. Debrunner by Robert W. Funk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Buth, Randall & Chad Pierce
2014 Hebraisti in Ancient Texts: Does Ἑβραϊστί Ever Mean “Aramaic”?. The Language Environment of First Century Judaea: Jerusalem Studies in the Synoptic Gospels: Volume Two ed. by Randall Buth & Steven Notley, 66–109. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Campanile, Enrico
1989Le lingue dell’impero. Storia di Roma. Volume 4: caratteri e morfologie ed. by Aldo Schiavone & Emilio Gabba, 679–691. Torino: Einaudi.Google Scholar
Carmignac, Jean
2009 [1 1984] Nascita dei vangeli sinottici. Milano: San Paolo.Google Scholar
Cohen, David
1984La phrase nominale et l’évolution du système verbal en sémitique: études de syntaxe historique. Paris: Peeters.Google Scholar
Conybeare, Frederick C. & George Stock
1995 [1 1905] Grammar of Septuagint Greek. Peabody: Hendrickson.Google Scholar
Coulter, George H.
2010Jewish and Christian Greek. A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language ed. by Egbert J. Bakker, 267–280. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Cowley, Arthur E.
1915Notes on Hebrew Papyrus Fragments from Oxyrhynchus. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 2:4.209–213. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Crespo, Emilio, Luz Conti & Helena Maquieira
2003Sintaxis del griego clásico. Madrid: Gredos.Google Scholar
Dalman, Gustaf
1902The Words of Jesus Considered in the Light of Post-Biblical Jewish Writings and the Aramaic Language. Volume I: Introduction and Fundamental Ideas. Edinburgh: Clark.Google Scholar
Daube, David
1984 [1 1956] The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
1987 [1 1946] Participle and Imperative in I Peter. The First Epistle of St. Peter: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes, and Essays ed. by Edward G. Selwyn, 467–488. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.Google Scholar
Davies, William D.
1980 [1 1948] Paul and Rabbinic Judaism: Some Rabbinic Elements in Pauline Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
De Lange, Nicholas
2001Jewish Greek. A History of Ancient Greek from the Beginnings to Late Antiquity ed. by Anastassios-Fivos Christidis, 638–645. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Dorival, Gilles, Marguerite Harl & Olivier Munnich
1994 [1 1988] La Bible grecque des Septante: du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien. Paris: CERF.Google Scholar
Drinka, Bridget
2011The Sacral Stamp of Greek: Periphrastic Constructions in New Testament Translations of Latin, Gothic, and Old Church Slavonic. Indo-European Syntax and Pragmatics: Contrastive Approaches ed. by Eirik Welo. Oslo Studies in Language 3:3.41–73. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Durand, Olivier
2001La lingua ebraica. Profilo storico-strutturale. Brescia: Paideia.Google Scholar
Ehrman, Bart D.
2018Il Nuovo Testamento. Un’introduzione. Roma: Carocci.Google Scholar
Evans, Trevor V.
2001Verbal Syntax in the Greek Pentateuch: Natural Greek Usage and Hebrew Interference. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Field, Frederick W.
2002Linguistic Borrowing in Bilingual Context. Amsterdam: Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Garbini, Giovanni
2017Il vangelo aramaico di Matteo e altri saggi. Torino: Paideia.Google Scholar
Gignac, Francis T.
1975A Grammar of the Greek Papyri of the Roman and Byzantine Periods: Volume I: Phonology. Milano: Cisalpino – La Goliardica.Google Scholar
Goldenberg, Gideon
2013Semitic Languages. Features, Structures, Relations, Processes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Guiraud, Charles
1962La phrase nominale en grec d’Homère a Euripide. Paris: Klincksieck.Google Scholar
Gusmani, Roberto
1981Saggi sull’interferenza linguistica. Volume primo. Firenze: Le Lettere.Google Scholar
1983Saggi sull’interferenza linguistica. Volume secondo. Firenze: Le Lettere.Google Scholar
Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
2005Language Contact and Grammatical Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hengel, Martin
1989The ‘Hellenization’ of Judaea in the First Century After Christ. London: SCM Press & Trinity Press International.Google Scholar
Hezser, Catherine
2010Private and Public Education. The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Daily Life in Roman Palestine ed. by Catherine Hezser, 465–481. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Holst, Søren
2008Verbs and War Scroll: Studies in the Hebrew Verbal System and the Qumran War Scroll. Uppsala: Uppsala University Library.Google Scholar
Horrocks, Geoffrey
2010 [1 1997] Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Janse, Mark
2002Aspects of Bilingualism in the History of the Greek Language. Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language Contact and the Written Text ed. by James N. Adams, Mark Janse & Simon Swain, 332–390. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Joosten, Jan
2010Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek in the Qumran Scrolls. The Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls ed. by Timothy H. Lim & John J. Collins, 351–374. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2012The Verbal System of Biblical Hebrew: A New Synthesis Elaborated on the Basis of Classical Prose. Jerusalem: Simor.Google Scholar
2021The Participle as a Component of the Verbal System in Biblical Hebrew. Brill’s Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics 13:1.65–74. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Joosten, Jan & Menahem Kister
2009The New Testament and Rabbinic Hebrew. The New Testament and Rabbinic Literature ed. by Reimund Bieringer, Florentino García Martínez, Didier Pollefeyt & Peter J. Tomson, 333–350. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Joüon, Paul P. & Takamitsu Muraoka
2011 [1 1991] A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Roma: Gregorian & Biblical Press.Google Scholar
Kutscher, Raphael
1982A History of the Hebrew Language. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Lieberman, Saul
1942Greek in Jewish Palestine: Studies in the Life and Manners of Jewish Palestine in the II-IV Centuries C.E. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
Lipiński, Edward
1997Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
Magnanini, Pietro & Pier Paolo Nava
2005Grammatica di aramaico biblico. Bologna: Studio Domenicano.Google Scholar
Mancini, Marco
2008Appunti sulla circolazione del latino nella Palestina del I secolo d.C. Diachronica et synchronica: studi in onore di Anna Giacalone Ramat ed. by Romano Lazzeroni, Emanuele Banfi, Giuliano Bernini, Marina Chini & Giovanna Marotta, 277–299. Pisa: ETS.Google Scholar
2010Il toponimo aramaico Gamlā’ e il bilinguismo di Flavio Giuseppe. Studi e Saggi Linguistici 471.25–42.Google Scholar
2013L’epigrafia giudaica e la diffusione del greco nella Palestina romana. Le lingue del Mediterraneo antico: culture, mutamenti, contatti ed. by Marco Mancini & Luca Lorenzetti, 213–259. Roma: Carocci.Google Scholar
Mandilaras, Basil G.
1973The Verb in the Greek Non-Literary Papyri. Athens: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Science.Google Scholar
Matras, Yaron
2009Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Matras, Yaron & Jeanette Sakel
McKay, Kenneth L.
1994A New Syntax of the Verb in New Testament Greek: An Aspectual Approach. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Moulton, James H.
1906A Grammar of New Testament Greek: Volume I: Prolegomena. Edinburgh: Clark.Google Scholar
Muraoka, Takamitsu
2005 [1 1996] Classical Syriac. A Basic Grammar with a Chrestomathy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
2016A Syntax of Septuagint Greek. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
2020A Syntax of Qumran Hebrew. Leuven: Peeters. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mussies, Gerard
1971The Morphology of Koine Greek as Used in the Apocalypse of St. John. A Study in Bilingualism. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nardi, Edoardo
Forthcoming. Semitic Calques in Biblical Greek: A Case-Study of Formulaic Participial Clauses. Language in Educational and Cultural Perspectives ed. by Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk & Marcin Trojszczak New York Springer
In Preparation. The Periphrasis ‘Εἶναι + Participle’ in Biblical Greek and Related Participial Constructions: Morphosyntax-Semantics Interface and Semitic Interference. PhD dissertation: Università degli Studi Guglielmo Marconi, Rome.
Nardi, Edoardo & Domenica Romagno
2022A Gradient for Periphrastic Constructions with Εἶναι in Post-Hellenistic Greek: Between Degree of Verbiness and Event Type. InVerbis 12:1.217–245.Google Scholar
Nöldeke, Theodor
1904 [1 1880] Compendious Syriac Grammar. London: Williams & Norgate.Google Scholar
Norris, Richard A.
2008The Apocalyptic and Sub-Apostolic Writings: The New Testament and the Apostolic Fathers. The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature ed. by Frances Young, Lewis Ayres & Andrew Louth, 11–19. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ong, Hughson T.
2016The Multilingual Jesus and the Sociolinguistic World of the New Testament. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pérez Fernández, Miguel
1997 [1 1992] An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew: Translated by John Elwolde. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Porter, Stanley E.
2016The Use of Greek in First-Century Palestine: A Diachronic and Synchronic Examination. Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism 121.203–228.Google Scholar
Porter, Stanley E. & Andrew W. Pitts
2008Paul’s Bible, His Education and His Access to the Scriptures of Israel. Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism 51.9–41.Google Scholar
Reed, Annette Y.
2015“Jewish-Christian” Apocrypha and the History of Jewish/Christian Relations. Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Texts and Traditions ed. by Pierluigi Piovanelli & Tony Burke, 87–116. Tübingen: Siebeck.Google Scholar
Regard, Paul F.
1919La phrase nominale dans la langue du Nouveau Testament. Paris: Leroux.Google Scholar
Rijksbaron, Albert
1994The Syntax and Semantics of the Verb in Classical Gree:. An Introduction. Amsterdam: Gieben.Google Scholar
Robertson, Archibald T.
1923 [1 1914] A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. New York: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
Rodríguez Monescillo, Esperanza
1972Sobre la oración nominal en Aristófanes. Revista española de lingüística 2:2.377–388.Google Scholar
Rosenthal, Franz
1961A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Schwyzer, Eduard
1950Griechische Grammatik. Vervollständigt und herausgegeben von Albert Debrunner. Zweiter Band: Syntax und syntaktische Stilistik. München: Beck.Google Scholar
Scott, Robert B. Y.
1928The Original Language of the Apocalypse. Toronto: The University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Segal, Moses H.
1980 [1 1927] A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Sevenster, Jan N.
1968Do You Know Greek? How Much Greek Could the First Jewish Christians Have Known?. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Silva, Moisés
1980Bilingualism and the Character of Palestinian Greek. Biblica 61:2.198–219.Google Scholar
Smelik, Willem
2010The Languages of Roman Palestine. The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Daily Life in Roman Palestine ed. by Catherine Hezser, 122–141. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, Scobie P.
2000The Question of Diglossia in Ancient Hebrew. Diglossia and Other Topics in New Testament Linguistics ed. by Stanley E. Porter, 37–52. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
Smyth, Herbert W.
1920A Greek Grammar for Colleges. New York: American Book Company.Google Scholar
Spolsky, Bernard
2014The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stevenson, William B.
1962 [1 1924] Grammar of Palestinian Jewish Aramaic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Thomason, Sarah G. & Terrence Kaufman
1988Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Thompson, Steven
1985The Apocalypse and Semitic Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Torrey, Charles C.
1958The Apocalypse of John. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Tronci, Liana
2020Contact-Induced Change and Language-Internal Factors: The Καὶ Ἐγένετο Type as a Case-Study. Papers on Ancient Greek Linguistics: Proceedings of the Ninth Colloquium on Ancient Greek Linguistics (ICAGL 9), 30 August – 1 September 2018, Helsinki ed. by Martti Leiwo, Marja Vierros & Sonja Dahlgren, 177–204. Vaasa: Societas Scientiarum Fennica.Google Scholar
Turner, Nigel
1955The Relation of Luke I and II to Hebraic Sources and to the Rest of Luke-Acts. New Testament Studies 2:2.100–109. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1976A Grammar of New Testament Greek by J. H. Moulton: Volume IV: Style. Edinburgh: Clark.Google Scholar
Viteau, Joseph
1893Études sur le grec du Nouveau Testament. Le verbe: syntaxe des propositions. Paris: Bouillon.Google Scholar
Voitila, Anssi
2016Septuagint Syntax and Hellenistic Greek. Handbook of the Septuagint. Volume 3: the Language of the Septuagint ed. by Eberhard Bons & Jan Joosten, 109–118. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Waltke, Bruce K. & Michael O’Connor
1990An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.Google Scholar
Wertheimer, Ada
2002Syriac Nominal Sentence. Journal of Semitic Studies 47:1.1–21. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wevers, John W.
2001The Rendering of the Tetragram in the Psalter and Pentateuch: A Comparative Study. The Old Greek Psalter: Studies in Honour of Albert Pietersma ed. by Robert J. V. Hiebert, Peter J. Gentry & Claude E. Cox, 21–35. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
Wifstrand, Albert
1947Stylistic Problems in the Epistles of James and Peter. Studia Theologica 11.170–182. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Williams, Travis B.
2007The Imperatival Participle in the New Testament. MA dissertation: Dallas Theological Seminary. DOI logo
Young, Frances
2008Introduction: The Literary Culture of the Earliest Christianity. The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature ed. by Frances Young, Lewis Ayres & Andrew Louth, 1–10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Texts and translations

Bettiolo, Paolo, Alda G. Kossova, Claudio Leonardi, Enrico Norelli & Lorenzo Perrone
1995Ascensio Isaiae. Textus. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
Bianchi, Francesco
2003Atti degli Apostoli. Roma: Città Nuova.Google Scholar
Black, Matthew & Albert-Marie Denis
1970Apocalypsis Henochi graece. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Brock, Sebastian P. & Jean-Claude Picard
1967Testamentum Iobi. Apocalypsis Baruchi graece. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Brooks, Ernest W.
1918Joseph and Asenath: The Confession and Prayer of Asenath, Daughter of Pentephres the Priest. London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
Burchard, Christoph
2003Joseph und Aseneth. Kritisch Herausgegeben. Leiden & Boston: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Camelot, Pierre-Thomas
1958Ignace d’Antioche. Polycarpe de Smyrne. Lettres. Martyre de Polycarpe. Paris: CERF.Google Scholar
Charles, Robert H.
1913aThe Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English: Volume I: Apocrypha. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
1913bThe Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English: Volume II: Pseudepigrapha. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Charlesworth, James H.
1983The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume I: Apocalyptic Literature & Testaments. Garden City: Doubleday & Co.Google Scholar
1985The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume II: Expansions of the “Old Testament” and Legends, Wisdom and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms, and Odes, Fragments of lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works. London: Darton, Longman & Todd.Google Scholar
Coleridge, Edward P.
1938Euripides: The Complete Greek Drama. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Craveri, Marcello
2014I vangeli apocrifi. Torino: Einaudi.Google Scholar
Cureton, William
1861History of the Martyrs in Palestine, by Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, Discovered in a Very Ancient Manuscript. London: William & Norgate.Google Scholar
De Jonge, Marinus
1964Testamenta XII Patriarcharum. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Elliott, John H.
2000I Peter: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New York: Doubleday. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hartman, Dorota
2016Archivio di Babatha: Volume I: testi greci e ketubbah. Brescia: Paideia.Google Scholar
James, Montague R.
1892The Testament of Abraham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1983 [1 1924] The Apocryphal New Testament: Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypses. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Kovacs, David
1995Euripides: With an English Translation by David Kovacs. Cambridge. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Kraus, Thomas J. & Tobias Nicklas
2004Das Petrusevangelium und die Petrusapokalypse. Die griechischen Fragmente mit deutscher und englischer Übersetzung. Berlin: De Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lamb, Walter R. M.
1967Plato: Translated by Walter R. M. Lamb. Cambridge: Harvard University Press & Heinemann.Google Scholar
Lewis, Naphtali, Yigael Yadin & Jonas C. Greenfield
1989The Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society & The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Google Scholar
Lipsius, Richard A.
1891Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha. Leipzig: Mendelsshon.Google Scholar
Mattison, Mark M.
2023The Infancy Gospel of James. [URL]
McCown, Chester C.
1922The Testament of Solomon. Leipzig: Hinrich.Google Scholar
Murray, Augustus T.
1924The Iliad: With an English Translation by A. T. Murray. London & New York: Heinemann & Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
Nestle, Eberhard, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini & Bruce M. Metzger
eds. 2012Novum Testamentum Graece. 28. rev. Auflage. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.Google Scholar
Niese, Benedictus
1955Flavii Iosephi Opera. Berlin: Weidmannsche.Google Scholar
Pietersma, Albert & Benjamin G. Wright
eds. 2007A New English Translation of the Septuagint. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Preisendanz, Karl
1928Papyri Graecae Magicae: die griechischen Zauberpapyri. Band I. Leipzig: Teubner.Google Scholar
1931Papyri Graecae Magicae: die griechischen Zauberpapyri. Band II. Leipzig: Teubner.Google Scholar
Rahlfs, Alfred & Robert Hanhart
eds. 2006Septuaginta id est Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta LXX interpretes. 21. Auflage. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.Google Scholar
Roberts, Alexander & James Donaldson
eds. 1903The Ante-Nicene Fathers: The Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325. Volume VIII. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
Rzach, Aloisius
1891Oracula Sibyllina. Prague: Tempsky.Google Scholar
Selwyn, Edward G.
1987 [1 1946] The First Epistle of St. Peter: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes, and Essays. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.Google Scholar
Sharpe, Samuel
1880The Epistle of Barnabas from the Sinaitic Manuscript of the Bible, with a Translation. Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate.Google Scholar
Sparks, Hedley F. D.
1981The Apocryphal Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Tischendorf von, Constantin
1866Apocalypses Apocryphae. Leipzig: Mendelssohn.Google Scholar
1876Evangelia Apocrypha. Leipzig: Mendelsshon.Google Scholar
Torrey, Charles C.
1946The Lives of the Prophets: Greek Text and Translation. Philadelphia: Society of Biblical Literature.Google Scholar
Wahl, Otto
1977Apocalypsis Esdrae. Apocalypsis Sedrach. Visio Beati Esdrae. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Whiston, William
1895The Works of Flavius Josephus: Translated by William Whiston. Buffalo: Beardsley.Google Scholar
Wilmart, André & Eugène Tisserant
1913Fragments grecs et latins de l’Èvangile de Barthélemy . Revue Biblique 10:3.321–368.Google Scholar