This study examined the phenomena of incomplete acquisition, attrition, and protracted acquisition of the L1 in HL children by focusing on the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (RCs) in Mandarin HL children. A cross-sectional design (study 1) and a longitudinal design (study 2) were both included. Our results showed that HL children were comparable to monolinguals for the comprehension of RCs in both study 1 and 2. For the production of RCs, although monolinguals outperformed HL children in study 1, HL children’s production of RCs was convergent with monolingual-like levels over time (study 2). We conclude that the reduced L1 input HL children receive in the host country does not necessarily lead to deficient acquisition of the L1. Perhaps for some complex structures in the L1 (e.g., RCs), HL children may need more time than monolingual children to accumulate the critical mass of input needed to acquire them.
(1998) Competing language structures: the acquisition of verb placement by bilingual German-English children. Journal of Child Language, 25(3), 555–584.
Fillmore, L. W.
(1991) When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood research Quarterly, 61, 323–346.
Flores, C. & Barbosa, P.
(2012) When reduced input leads to delayed acquisition: a study on the acquisition of clitic placement by Portuguese heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(3), 304–325. .
Foroodi Nejad, F., & Paradis, J.
(2009) Crosslinguistic transfer in the acquisition of compound words of Persian-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 121, 411–427.
Forster, K. I., & Forster, J. C.
(2003) DMDX: A Windows display program with millisecond accuracy. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 351, 116–124.
Gathercole, V. M.
(2007) Miami and North Wales, so far and yet so near: A constructivist account of morphosyntactic development in bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 101, 224–247.
Gathercole, V. M., & Hoff, E.
(2007) Input and the acquisition of language: Three questions. In E. Hoff & M. Schatz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of language development (pp. 107–127). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Goldberg, A. E.
(1995) Constructions: A construction grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(2006) How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 261, 55–88.
Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Senor, M., & Parra, M.
(2012) Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 391, 1–27. .
(2014) The role of age in Mandarin-speaking children’s performance of relative clauses. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics, 29–54.
Jia, G., & Aaronson, D.
(2003) A longitudinal study of Chinese children and adolescent learning English in the United States. Applied Psycholinguistics, 241, 131–161.
Jia, G., Aaronson, D., Young, D., Chen, S., & Wagner, J.
(2005) Bilingual Mandarin-, Russian- and Spanish-English speakers’ grammatical proficiency in their two languages. In M. Minami, H. Kobayashi, M. Nakayama, & H. Sirai (Eds.), Studies in language sciences (pp. 160–171). Tokyo: Kurosio.
(2008) Heritage language development, maintenance, and attrition among recent Chinese immigrants in New York City. In A. W. He & Y. Xiao (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language: Fostering rooted world citizenry (pp.189–203). Honolulu, HA: University of Hawaii Press.
Jia, R., & Paradis., J.
(2015) The use of referring expressions in narratives by Mandarin heritage language children and the role of language environment factors in predicting individual differences. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 181, 737–752. .
Kaufman, D., & Aronoff, M.
(1991) Morphological disintegration and reconstruction in first language attrition. In H. Seliger & R. Vago (eds.), First Language Attrition (pp.175–188). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
(2005) Acquisition, attrition, and revitalization of Hebrew in immigrant children. In D. Ravid & H. Bat-ZeevShyldkrot (Eds.), Perspective on language and language development (pp. 407–418). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kidd, E., Chen, A., & Chiu, J.
(2015) Cross-linguistic influence in simultaneous Cantonese – English bilingual children’s comprehension of relative clauses. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 181, 438–452.
(2005) Differences in Language skills: Heritage language learner subgroups and foreign language learners. The Modern Language Journal, 891, 563–581.
Langacker, R. W.
(2000) A dynamic usage-based model. In M. Barlow & S. Kemmer (Eds.), Usage-based models of language (pp. 1–63). Stanford: CSLI Publications.
Li, W., & Lee, S.
(2001) L1 development in an L2 environment: The use of Cantonese classifiers and quantifiers by young British-born Chinese in Tyneside. International Journal of Bilingual Education and bilingualism, 41, 359–382.
(2002) Incomplete acquisition and attrition of Spanish tense/aspect distinctions in adult bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 51, 39–68.
(2005) Second language acquisition and first language loss in adult early bilinguals: exploring some differences and similarities. Second Language Research, 211, 199–249.
(2014) French-English bilingual children’s sensitivity to child-level and language-level input factors in morphosyntactic acquisition. In T. Grüter, & J. Paradis (Eds.), Input and Experience in Bilingual Development (pp.161–180). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pires, A., & Rothman, J.
(2009) Disentangling sources of incomplete acquisition: An explanation for competence divergence across heritage grammars. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(2), 211–238.
(2006) Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics, 141, 191–262.
(2008) Gender under incomplete acquisition: Heritage speakers” knowledge of noun categorization. Heritage Language Journal, 6(1), 40–71.
(2011) Reanalysis in Adult Heritage Language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33(2), 305–328.
(2007) Heritage speaker competence differences, language change and input type: Inflected infinitives in heritage Brazilian Portuguese. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(4), 359–389.
(2009) Understanding the Nature and Outcomes of Early Bilingualism: Romance Languages as Heritage Languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(2) 155–164.
Rinke, E., & Flores, C.
(2014) Morphosyntactic knowledge of clitics by Portuguese heritage bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 171, 681–699. .
Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., Filiaci, F., & Baldo, M.
(2009) Bilingual children’s sensitivity to specificity and genericity: Evidence from metalinguistic awareness. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 121, 239–257.
(1994) Language Contact and Change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yip, V. & Matthews, S.
(2007) The Bilingual Child: early development and language contact. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
2022. Sources of variation at the onset of bilingualism: The differential effect of input factors, AOA, and cognitive skills on HL Arabic and L2 English syntax. Journal of Child Language 49:4 ► pp. 741 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 29 october 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.