Adam, R.
(2016) Unimodal bilingualism in the deaf community: Contact between dialects of BSL and ISL in Australia and the United Kingdom. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University College, London.
Amengual, M.
(2012) Interlingual influence in bilingual speech: Cognate status effect in a continuum of bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15 (3), 517–530. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Amengual, M., & Simonet, M.
(2020) Language dominance does not always predict cross-linguistic interactions in bilingual speech production. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 10 (6), 847–872. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Aronoff, M., Meir, I., & Sandler, W.
(2005) The paradox of sign language morphology. Language, 81 (2), 301–344. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bahan, B.
(2006) Face-to-face tradition in the American Deaf community: Dynamics of the teller, the tale, and the audience. In H.-D. L. Bauman, J. L. Nelson, & H. M. Rose (Eds.), Signing the body poetic (pp. 21–50). University of California Press.Google Scholar
Bahrick, H. P., Hall, L. K., Goggin, J. P., Bahrick, L. E., & Berger, S. A.
(1994) Fifty years of language maintenance and language dominance in bilingual Hispanic immigrants. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 123 (3), 264–283. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baird, B. O.
(2021) Bilingual language dominance and contrastive focus marking: Gradient effects of K’ichee’ syntax on Spanish prosody. International Journal of Bilingualism, 25 (3), 500–515. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
(2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67 (1), 1–48. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baus, C., Carreiras, M., & Emmorey, K.
(2013) When does iconicity in sign language matter? Language and Cognitive Processes, 28 (23), 261–271. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Birdsong, D.
(2006) Dominance, proficiency, and second language grammatical processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27 (1), 46–49.Google Scholar
Birdsong, D., Gertken, L. M., & Amengual, M.
(2012) Bilingual Language Profile: An easy-to-use instrument to assess bilingualism. Center for Open Educational Resources and Language Learning, University of Texas at Austin, available at [URL]
Byun, K.-S., de Vos, C., Bradford, A., Zeshan, U., & Levinson, S. C.
(2018) First encounters: Repair sequences in cross-signing. Topics in Cognitive Science, 10 (2), 314–334. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Caselli, N. K., & Pyers, J. E.
(2017) The road to language learning is not entirely iconic: Iconicity, neighborhood density, and frequency facilitate acquisition of sign language. Psychological Science, 28 (7), 979–987. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Clerc, L.
(1852) Laurent Clerc. Connecticut Common School Journal (1838–1853), 6 (3/4), 102–112.Google Scholar
Costa, A., Santesteban, M., & Caño, A.
(2005) On the facilitatory effects of cognate words in bilingual speech production. Brain and Language, 94 (1), 94–103. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Desloges, P.
(1779) Observations d’un sourd et muèt, sur un cours élémentaire d’éducation des sourds et muèts, publié en 1779 par M. l’abbé Deschamps, chapelain de l’église d’Orléans. Retrieved from [URL]
Dunn, A. L., & Fox Tree, J. E.
(2009) A quick, gradient bilingual dominance scale. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12 (3), 273–289. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M.
(1997) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third edition (PPVT-III). Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Eccarius, P., & Brentari, D.
(2007) Symmetry and dominance: A cross-linguistic study of signs and classifier constructions. Lingua, 117 1, 1169–1201. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fenlon, J., Cormier, K., & Brentari, D.
(2016) The phonology of sign languages. In A. Bosch & S. Hannahs (Eds.), Routledge handbook of phonological theory (pp. 453–475). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E., MacKay, I. R. A., & Piske, T.
(2002) Assessing bilingual dominance. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23 1, 567–598. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Frishberg, N.
(1975) Arbitrariness and iconicity: Historical change in American Sign Language. Language, 51 (3), 696–719. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gertken, L. M., Amengual, M., & Birdsong, D.
(2014) Assessing language dominance with the Bilingual Language Profile. In P. Leclercq, A. Edmonds, & H. Hilton (Eds.), Measuring L2 proficiency: Perspectives from SLA (pp. 208–225). Multilingual Matters. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, J. H.
(1957) Essays in linguistics. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Grosjean, F.
(1985) The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6 (6), 467–477. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Guerra Currie, A.-M., Meier, R. P., & Walters, K.
(2002) A crosslinguistic examination of the lexicons of four signed languages. In R. P. Meier, K. Cormier, & D. Quinto-Pozos (Eds.), Modality and structure in signed and spoken languages (pp. 224–236). Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hill, J. C., Lillo-Martin, D. C., & Wood, S. K.
(2018) Sign languages: Structures and contexts. Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hochgesang, J. A., Crasborn, O., & Lillo-Martin, D.
(2021) ASL Signbank. Haskins Lab, Yale University. [URL]
Jordan, I. K., & Battison, R.
(1976) A referential communication experiment with foreign sign languages. Sign Language Studies, 10 (1), 69–80. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Klima, E. S., & Bellugi, U.
(1979) The signs of language. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Kusters, A.
(2020) The tipping point: On the use of signs from American Sign Language in international sign. Language and Communication, 75 1, 51–68. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kusters, A., & De Meulder, M.
(2013) Understanding Deafhood: In search of its meanings. American Annals of the Deaf, 157 (5), 428–438. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kuzmina, E., Goral, M., Norvik, M., & Weekes, B. S.
(2019) What influences language impairment in bilingual aphasia? A meta-analytic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 1, 445. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lieberth, A. K., & Gamble, M. E. B.
(1991) The role of iconicity in sign language learning by hearing adults. Journal of Communication Disorders, 24 (2), 89–99. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Limesurvey GmbH
LimeSurvey: An Open Source survey tool. LimeSurvey GmbH. URL [URL]
Lindeberg, D. J.
(2022) Language dominance in sign languages. Retrieved from [URL]
Marian, V., Blumenfeld, H. K., & Kaushanskaya, M.
(2007) The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50 (4), 940–967. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Marshall, C., Rowley, K., & Atkinson, J.
(2014) Modality-dependent and -independent factors in the organisation of the signed language lexicon: Insights from semantic and phonological fluency tasks in BSL. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 43 (5), 587–610. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
McKee, D., & Kennedy, G.
(2000) Lexical comparison of signs from American, Australian, British and New Zealand sign languages. In K. Emmorey & H. L. Lane (Eds.), The signs of language revisited: An anthology to honor Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima (pp. 49–76). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Meier, R. P., Mauk, C. E., Cheek, A., & Moreland, C. J.
(2008) The form of children’s early signs: Iconic or motoric determinants? Language Learning and Development, 4 (1), 63–98. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meuter, R. F. I., & Allport, A.
(1999) Bilingual language switching in naming: Asymmetrical costs of language selection. Journal of Memory and Language, 40 (1), 25–40. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Morere, D. A., Witkin, G., & Murphy, L.
(2012) Measures of expressive language. In D. A. Morere & T. Allen (Eds.), Assessing literacy in deaf individuals (pp. 141–157). Springer New York. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Moriarty, E.
(2020) Filmmaking in a linguistic ethnography of deaf tourist encounters. Sign Language Studies, 20 (4), 572–594. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mosand, N., & Malmquist, A. K.
(1996) Se mitt språk. Døves Forlag As.Google Scholar
Mott, M., Midgley, K. J., Holcomb, P. J., & Emmorey, K.
(2020) Cross-modal translation priming and iconicity effects in deaf signers and hearing learners of American sign language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 23 (5), 1032–1044. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Napoli, D. J., Gaw, N., & Mai, M.
(2011) Primary movement in sign languages: A study of six languages. Gallaudet University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, A., & Dingemanse, M.
(2021) Iconicity in word learning and beyond: A critical review. Language and Speech, 64 (1), 52–72. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ortega, G., & Morgan, G.
(2015) Input processing at first exposure to a sign language. Second Language Research, 31 (4), 443–463. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Östling, R., Börstell, C., & Courtaux, S.
(2018) Visual iconicity across sign languages: Large-scale automated video analysis of iconic articulators and locations. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 1, 725. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Padden, C., & Gunsauls, D. C.
(2003) How the alphabet came to be used in a sign language. Sign Language Studies, 4 (1), 10–33. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Parkhurst, S., & Parkhurst, D.
(2003) Lexical comparisons of signed languages and the effects of iconicity. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session 47 1.Google Scholar
Perniss, P., Lu, J. C., Morgan, G., & Vigliocco, G.
(2018) Mapping language to the world: The role of iconicity in the sign language input. Developmental Science, 21 (2), e12551. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Polich, L.
(2005) The emergence of the deaf community in Nicaragua: With sign language you can learn so much. Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar
Rathmann, C. G.
(2005) Event structure in American Sign Language (Dissertation). University of Texas at Austin.
R Core Team
(2020) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. [URL]
Ringbom, H.
(2007) Cross-linguistic similarity in foreign language learning. Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Saussure, F. de
(1916/1986) Course in general linguistics. Open Court.Google Scholar
Sehyr, Z. S., Giezen, M. R., & Emmorey, K.
(2018) Comparing semantic fluency in American Sign Language and English. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 23 1, 399–407. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Shen, A., Gahl, S., & Johnson, K.
(2020) Didn’t hear that coming: Effects of withholding phonetic cues to code-switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 23 (5), 1020–1031. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Shishkin, E., & Ecke, P.
(2018) Language dominance, verbal fluency, and language control in two groups of Russian–English bilinguals. Languages, 3 (3), 27. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stewart, D. A.
(1985) Language dominance in deaf students. Sign Language Studies, 49 (1), 375–386. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stokoe, W. C.
(1960) Sign language structure: An outline of the visual communication systems of the American deaf. In Studies in linguistics: Occasional papers. Department of Anthropology and Linguistics, University of Buffalo.Google Scholar
Treffers-Daller, J.
(2016) Language dominance: The construct, its measurement, and operationalization. In C. Silva-Corvalan & J. Treffers-Daller (Eds.), Language dominance in bilinguals (pp. 235–265). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
(2019) What defines language dominance in bilinguals? Annual Review of Linguistics, 5 1, 375–393. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Webster, A. K.
(2006) Keeping the word: On orality and literacy (with a sideways glance at Navajo). Oral Tradition, 21 (2), 295–324. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Yoel, J.
(2007) Evidence for first-language attrition of Russian sign language among immigrants to Israel. In D. Quinto-Pozos (Ed.), Sign languages in contact (pp. 153–191). Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar