Marit Westergaard

List of John Benjamins publications for which Marit Westergaard plays a role.


Book series


Structural similarity across domains in third language acquisition

Edited by Nadine Kolb, Natalia Mitrofanova and Marit Westergaard

Special issue of Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 13:5 (2023) v, 136 pp.
Subjects Generative linguistics | Germanic linguistics | Language acquisition | Syntax | Theoretical linguistics


Kolb, Nadine, Natalia Mitrofanova and Marit Westergaard 2023 Structural similarity in third language acquisition: Linguistic approaches to bilingualismStructural similarity across domains in third language acquisition, Kolb, Nadine, Natalia Mitrofanova and Marit Westergaard (eds.), pp. 607–613
Review article
Mitrofanova, Natalia, Evelina Leivada and Marit Westergaard 2023 Crosslinguistic influence in L3 acquisition: Evidence from artificial language learningStructural similarity across domains in third language acquisition, Kolb, Nadine, Natalia Mitrofanova and Marit Westergaard (eds.), pp. 717–742
This study investigates the role of lexical vs structural similarity in L3 acquisition. We designed a mini-artificial language learning task where the novel L3 was lexically based on Norwegian but included a property that was present in Russian and Greek yet absent in Norwegian (grammatical case).… read more | Article
This paper discusses possible attrition of verb second (V2) word order in Norwegian heritage language by investigating a corpus of spontaneous speech produced by 50 2nd–4th generation heritage speakers in North America. The study confirms previous findings that V2 word order is generally stable in… read more | Article
Anderssen, Merete and Marit Westergaard 2020 Word order variation in heritage languages: Subject shift and object shift in NorwegianLost in Transmission: The role of attrition and input in heritage language development, Brehmer, Bernhard and Jeanine Treffers-Daller (eds.), pp. 99–124
This study investigates two word order phenomena in Norwegian heritage language spoken in the US, subject shift (SS) and object shift (OS). SS and OS occur in syntactic environments where (pronominal) subjects and objects may either precede or follow negation. This paper explores to what extent… read more | Chapter
Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman and Marit Westergaard 2020 Syntactic contrasts in early and late Brazilian Portuguese-European Portuguese bidialectal bilinguals: Data from productionLinguistic Approaches to Portuguese as an Additional Language, Molsing, Karina Veronica, Cristina Becker Lopes Perna and Ana Maria Tramunt Ibaños (eds.), pp. 35–59
This study explores the production of subject and object pronouns in the case of Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and European Portuguese (EP) early and late bidialectal bilinguals. The distribution of empty categories in the two systems differs in terms of syntactic and semantic constraints. In this… read more | Chapter
Wolleb, Anna, Antonella Sorace and Marit Westergaard 2019 Chapter 10. Language control and executive control: Can studies on language processing distinguish the two?Bilingualism, Executive Function, and Beyond: Questions and insights, Sekerina, Irina A., Lauren Spradlin and Virginia Valian (eds.), pp. 147–160
In this paper, we review recent literature on the cognitive benefits of bilingualism and suggest that studies focusing on language processing can provide insights in the debate surrounding the “bilingual advantage hypothesis”. We argue that cross-language priming can be a useful research tool,… read more | Chapter
In this paper, we explore the role of cognition in bilingual syntactic processing by employing a structural priming paradigm. A group of Norwegian-English bilingual children and an age-matched group of Norwegian monolingual children were tested in a priming task that included both a within-language… read more | Article
This paper compares production and judgment data collected from several North Norwegian dialects, focusing on word order variation in wh-questions (V2 vs. non-V2). The findings show that non-V2 is widespread in questions with monosyllabic wh-elements and also fully accepted in questions with… read more | Chapter
Westergaard, Marit, Øystein Alexander Vangsnes and Terje Lohndal 2017 Variation and change in Norwegian wh-questions: The role of the complementizer som Syntactic Variation and Change, Håkansson, David, Ida Larsson and Erik Magnusson Petzell (eds.), pp. 8–43
In this paper, we consider variation in Verb Second (V2) word order in wh-questions across Norwegian dialects by investigating data from the Nordic Syntax Database (NSD), which consists of acceptability judgments collected at more than 100 locations in Norway. We trace the geographical distribution… read more | Article
Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman and Marit Westergaard 2016 Comparing anaphora resolution in early and late Brazilian Portuguese-European Portuguese bidialectal bilingualsThe Acquisition and Processing of Spanish and Portuguese Morphosyntax: Theoretical and experimental issues, Klassen, Rachel, Anahí Alba de la Fuente, Joanne Markle LaMontagne and Almudena Basanta y Romero-Valdespino (eds.), pp. 429–461
The present study examines anaphora resolution in two groups of speakers exposed to Brazilian and European Portuguese (BP and EP, respectively), considering the different null subject distribution in these languages. Our research question is whether late BP-EP bilinguals (age of EP onset: 29.1) and… read more | Article
Children acquiring languages such as English, German or Dutch typically go through a phase where they produce non-finite root clauses, often referred to as the Optional Infinitive (OI) stage. But there is a difference between English on the one hand and the other Germanic languages on the other… read more | Article
Westergaard, Marit and Merete Anderssen 2015 Word Order Variation in Norwegian Possessive Constructions: Bilingual Acquisition and AttritionGermanic Heritage Languages in North America: Acquisition, attrition and change, Johannessen, Janne Bondi † and Joseph C. Salmons (eds.), pp. 21–45
In Norwegian possessive constructions, the possessive may either precede or follow the noun. Monolingual children initially show a preference for the prenominal possessive construction, although it is much less frequent than the postnominal one in the adult language. A likely explanation is that… read more | Article
This paper discusses the considerable word order variation that existed at the end of the Middle English period, by studying four prose texts written by the same author, John Capgrave. The data are investigated in terms of information structure, and we identify the effect of three different… read more | Article
Children are often exposed to considerable variation in the input. Nevertheless, there is very little overgeneralization in child language data and children are typically found to make errors of omission, not errors of commission, a fact which is often referred to as conservative learning. In this… read more | Article
Rodina, Yulia and Marit Westergaard 2013 Two gender systems in one mind: The acquisition of grammatical gender in Norwegian-Russian bilingualsMultilingualism and Language Diversity in Urban Areas: Acquisition, identities, space, education, Siemund, Peter, Ingrid Gogolin, Monika Edith Schulz and Julia Davydova (eds.), pp. 95–126
This study investigates the simultaneous acquisition of two different grammatical gender systems by Norwegian-Russian children. The main difference between the two languages is transparency of gender assignment: Gender is relatively predictable in Russian, while it is more or less idiosyncratic in… read more | Article
Against the backdrop of some traditional generative work on parameters as well as some recent constructivist work, this paper discusses how children handle variation that they are exposed to in the input. Investigating different types of word order variation, the paper finds no evidence for… read more | Article
In the history of English one finds a mixture of V2 and non-V2 word order in declaratives for several hundred years, with frequencies suggesting a relatively gradual development in the direction of non-V2. Within an extended version of a cue-based approach to acquisition and change, this paper… read more | Article
This chapter reports on a study investigating three children acquiring a dialect of Norwegian (Tromsø). It is shown that, although verb-second (V2) word order is attested early in non-subject-initial declaratives and questions, the children produce non-target-consistent word order in these… read more | Article
This study investigates how child speakers of a verb second (V2) language acquire the supposedly more basic SVO word order of English. Data comes from approximately 100 Norwegian school children aged 7 to 12 in their acquisition of three related syntactic constructions. The focus of the… read more | Article