Article published In:
Studies in Language
Vol. 47:4 (2023) ► pp.789829
References
Ackerman, Farrell & Robert Malouf
2013Morphological organization: The low conditional entropy conjecture. Language 89(3). 429–464. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Aranovich, Raúl
2013Transitivity and polysynthesis in Fijian. Language 89(3). 465–500. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Arkadiev, Peter & Francesco Gardani
(eds.) 2020Introduction: The complexities of morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Artetxe, Mikel & Holger Schwenk
2019Massively multilingual sentence embeddings for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer and beyond. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 71. 597–610. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baerman, Matthew, Dunstan Brown & Greville G. Corbett
(eds.) 2015Understanding and measuring morphological complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barth, Danielle & Nicolas Evans
(eds.) 2017The Social Cognition Parallax Corpus (SCOPIC) (Language documentation and conservation special publication no. 12). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
Bentz, Christian & Dimitrios Alikaniotis
2016The word entropy of natural languages. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.06996. Available at: (last access 2 December 2022). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bentz, Christian, Tatyana Ruzsics, Alexander Koplenig & Tanja Samardžić
2016A comparison between morphological complexity measures: Typological data vs. language corpora. In Dominique Brunato, Felice Dell’Orletta, Giulia Venturi, Thomas François & Philippe Blache (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity (CL4LC), 142–153. Osaka, Japan, December, 2016. As a part of COLING 2016. 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics.
Bentz, Christian, Ximena Gutierrez-Vasques, Olga Sozinova & Tanja Samardžić
2022Complexity trade-Offs and equi-complexity in natural languages: A meta-analysis. Linguistics Vanguard. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bickel, Balthasar & Johanna Nichols
2013Chapter 22: Inflectional synthesis of the verb, In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds.). The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Available at: [URL] (last access 2 December 2022).
Bickel, Balthasar, Johanna Nichols, Taras Zakharko, Alena Witzlack-Makarevich, Kristine Hildebrandt, Michael Rießler, Lennart Bierkandt, Fernando Zúñiga & John B. Lowe
2022The AUTOTYP database (v1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. Available at: [URL] (last access 2 December 2022).
Bisang, Walter
2014Overt and hidden complexity–Two types of complexity and their implications. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 50(2). 127–143. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2015Hidden complexity–the neglected side of complexity and its implications. Linguistics Vanguard 1(1). 177–187. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Blyth, Colin R.
1972On Simpson’s paradox and the sure-thing principle. Journal of the American Statistical Association 67(338). 364–366. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Choenni, Rochelle & Ekaterina Shutova
2020What does it mean to be language-agnostic? Probing multilingual sentence encoders for typological properties. arXiv e-prints arXiv:2009.12862. Available at: (last access 2 December 2022). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Christodouloupoulos, Christos & Mark Steedman
2015A massively parallel corpus: The Bible in 100 languages. Language Resources and Evaluation 49(2). 375–395. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cohen Priva, Uriel
2017Not so fast: Fast speech correlates with lower lexical and structural information. Cognition 1601. 27–34. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Çöltekin, Çağri & Taraka Rama
2022What do complexity measures measure? Correlating and validating corpus-based measures of morphological complexity. Linguistics Vanguard. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Conneau, Alexis, Kartikay Khandelwal, Naman Goyal, Vishrav Chaudhary, Guillaume Wenzek, Francisco Guzmán, Edouard Grave, Myle Ott, Luke Zettlemoyer & Veselin Stoyanov
2019Unsupervised cross-lingual representation learning at scale. arXiv preprint arXiv:1911.02116. Available at: (last access 2 December 2022). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cotterell, Ryan, Christo Kirov, Mans Hulden & Jason Eisner
2019On the complexity and typology of inflectional morphological systems. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 71. 327–342. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Coupé, Christophe, Oh Yoon Mi, Dan Dediu & François Pellegrino
2019Different languages, similar encoding efficiency: Comparable information rates across the human communicative niche. Science Advances 5(9). eaaw2594. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Covington, Michael A. & Joe D. McFall
2010Cutting the Gordian knot: The Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR). Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 17(2). 94–100. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dahl, Östen
2004The growth and maintenance of linguistic complexity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine, Christopher D. Manning, Joakim Nivre & Daniel Zeman
2021Universal Dependencies. Computational Linguistics 47(2). 255–308. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Derbyshire, Desmond C. & Doris L. Payne
1990Noun classification systems of Amazonian languages. In Doris L. Payne (ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages, 243–272. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Dixon, Robert M. W.
1988A grammar of Boumaa Fijian. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Dryer, Matthew S. & Martin Haspelmath
2013The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.Google Scholar
Easterday, Shelece, Matthew Stave, Marc Allassonnière-Tang & Frank Seifart
2021Syllable complexity and morphological synthesis: a well-motivated positive complexity correlation across subdomains. Frontiers in Psychology 121. 583. Available at: DOI logo (last access 5 December 2022).Google Scholar
Ehret, Katharina & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi
2016An information-theoretic approach to assess linguistic complexity. In Raffaela Baechler & Guido Seiler (eds.). Complexity, isolation, and variation, 71–94. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ehret, Katharina, Alice Blumenthal-Dramé, Christian Bentz & Aleksandrs Berdicevskis
2021Meaning and measures: Interpreting and evaluating complexity metrics. Frontiers in Communication 61. 640510. Available at: DOI logo (last access 5 December 2022).Google Scholar
Erdmann, Alexander, Salam Khalifa, Mai Oudah, Nizar Habash & Houda Bouamor
2019A little linguistics goes a long way: Unsupervised segmentation with limited language specific guidance. In Garrett Nicolai & Ryan Cotterell (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology, 113–124, Florence: Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Frank, Stefan L.
2013Uncertainty reduction as a measure of cognitive load in sentence comprehension. Topics in Cognitive Science 5(3). 475–494. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gerz, Daniela, Ivan Vulić, Edoardo Maria Ponti, Roi Reichart & Anna Korhonen
2018On the relation between linguistic typology and (limitations of) multilingual language modeling. In Ellen Riloff, David Chiang, Julia Hockenmaier & Jun’ichi Tsujii (eds.), Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 316–327, Brussels: Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gibson, Edward
1998Linguistic complexity: Locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition 68(1). 1–76. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, Joseph H.
1960A quantitative approach to the morphological typology of language. International Journal of American Linguistics 26(3). 178–194. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gutierrez-Vasques, Ximena & Victor Mijangos
2020Productivity and predictability for measuring morphological complexity. Entropy 22(1). 48. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gutierrez-Vasques, Ximena, Christian Bentz, Olga Sozinova & Tanja Samardzic
2021From characters to words: The turning point of BPE merges. In Paola Merlo, Jorg Tiedemann & Reut Tsarfaty (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume, 3454–3468. Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Haig, Geoffrey & Stefan Schnell
(eds.) 2022Multi-CAST: Multilingual corpus of annotated spoken texts. Version 2108. Available at: [URL] (last access 2 December 2022).
Haig, Geoffrey, Stefan Schnell & Frank Seifart
(eds.) 2021Doing corpus-based typology with spoken language corpora: State of the art. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
Hawkins, John A.
2004Efficiency and complexity in grammars. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hollenstein, Nora, Federico Pirovano, Ce Zhang, Lena Jäger & Lisa Beinborn
2021Multilingual language models predict human reading behavior. In Kristina Toutanova, Anna Rumshisky, Luke Zettlemoyer, Dilek Hakkani-Tur, Iz Beltagy, Steven Bethard, Ryan Cottrell, Tanmoy Chakraborty & Yichao Zhou (eds.), Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, 106–123. Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hollenstein, Nora, Emmanuele Chersoni, Cassandra Jacobs, Yohei Oseki, Laurent Prévot & Enrico Santus
2022CMCL 2022 Shared Task on Multilingual and Crosslingual Prediction of Human Reading Behavior. In Emmanuele Chersoni, Nora Hollestein, Cassandra Jacobs, Yohei Oseki, Laurent Prévot & Enrico Santus (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics, 121–129. Dublin: Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Wendell
1944Studies in language behavior: I. A program of research. Psychological Monographs 56(2). 1–15. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Joseph, John E. & Frederick J. Newmeyer
2012‘All Languages Are Equally Complex’: The rise and fall of a consensus. Historiographia Linguistica 39(2–3). 341–368. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Juola, Patrick
1998Measuring linguistic complexity: The morphological tier. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 5(3). 206–213. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kettunen, Kimmo, Markus Sadeniemi, Tiina Lindh-Knuutila & Timo Honkela
2006Analysis of EU languages through text compression. In Tapio Salakoski, Filip Ginter, Sampo Pyysalo & Tapio Pahikkala (eds.), International Conference on Natural Language Processing (in Finland), 99–109. Berlin: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kettunen, Kimmo
2014Can type-token ratio be used to show morphological complexity of languages? Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 21(3). 223–245. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Koplenig, Alexander, Peter Meyer, Sascha Wolfer & Carolin Müller-Spitzer
2017The statistical trade-off between word order and word structure – Large-scale evidence for the principle of least effort. PLoS ONE 12(3). e0173614. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Koplenig, Alexander
2019Language structure is influenced by the number of speakers but seemingly not by the proportion of non-native speakers. Royal Society Open Science 6(2). 181274. Available at: DOI logo (last access 5 December 2022).Google Scholar
Kortmann, Bernd & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi
2012Linguistic complexity: Second language acquisition, indigenization, contact. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kusters, Wouter
2003Linguistic complexity: The influence of social change on verbal inflection. Utrecht: Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics.Google Scholar
Lake, Brenden M. & Gregory L. Murphy
2021Word meaning in minds and machines. arXiv preprint ArXiv:2008.01766. Available at: (last access 2 December 2022). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lupyan, Gary & Rick Dale
2010Language structure is partly determined by social structure. PLoS ONE 5(1). e8559. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
MacWhinney, Brian
2005The emergence of linguistic form in time. Connection Sciences 17(3–4). 191–211. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maddieson, Ian
2009Calculating phonological complexity. In François Pellegrino, Egidio Marsico, Ioana Chitoran & Christophe Coupé (eds.). Approaches to Phonological Complexity, 83–110. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maddieson, Ian, Sébastien Flavier, Egidio Marsico, Christophe Coupé & François Pellegrino
2013LAPSyd: Lyon-Albuquerque phonological systems database. In Frédéric Bimbot, Christophe Cerisara, Cécile Fougeron, Lori Lamel, François Pellegrino & Pascal Perrier (eds.), Proceedings of the 14th Interspeech Conference, Lyon, France, 3022–3026 Lyon: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Malouf, Robert
2017Abstractive morphological learning with a recurrent neural network. Morphology 271. 431–458. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mayer, Thomas & Michael Cysouw
2014Creating a massively parallel bible corpus. In Nicoletta Calzorari, Khalid Choukri, Thierry Declerck, Hrafn Loftsson, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Asuncion Moreno, Jan Odijk & Stelios Piperidis (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2014), 3158–3163. Reykjavik: European Language Resources Association (ELRA).Google Scholar
McCarthy, Arya D. Christo Kirov, Matteo Grella, Amrit Nidhi, Patrick Xia, Kyle Gorman, Ekaterina Vylomova, Sabrina J. Mielke, Garrett Nicolai, Miikka Silfverberg, Timofey Arkhangelskiy, Nataly Krizhanovsky, Andrew Krizhanovsky, Elena Klyachko, Alexey Sorokin, John Mansfield, Valts Ernštreits, Yuval Pinter, Cassandra L. Jacobs, Ryan Cotterell, Mans Hulden & David Yarowsky
2020UniMorph 3.0: Universal Morphology. In Nicoletta Calzolari, Frédéric Béchet, Philippe Blache, Khalid Choukri, Christopher Cieri, Thierry Declerck, Sara Goggi, Hitoshi Isahara, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Hélène Mazo, Asuncion Moreno, Jan Odijk & Stelios Piperidis (eds.), Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2020), 3922–3931. Marseille: European Language Resources Association (ELRA).Google Scholar
McCarthy, Philip M. & Scott Jarvis
2010MTLD, vocd-D, and HD-D: A validation study of sophisticated approaches to lexical diversity assessment. Behavior Research Methods 421. 381–392. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meister, Clara, Tiago Pimentel, Patrick Haller, Lena Jäger, Ryan Cotterell & Roger Levy
2021Revisiting the Uniform Information Density hypothesis. In Marie-Francine Moens, Xuanjing Huang, Lucia Specia & Scott Wen-tau Yih (eds.), Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 963–980. Punta Cana: Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Merkx, Danny & Stefan L. Frank
2021Human sentence processing: Recurrence or attention? In Emmanuele Chersoni, Nora Hollenstein, Cassandra Jacobs, Yohei Oseki, Laurent Prévot & Enrico Santus (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics, 12–22. Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mielke, Sabrina J., Ryan Cotterell, Kyle Gorman, Brian Roark & Jason Eisner
2019What kind of language is hard to language-model? In Anna Korhonen, David Traum & Lluís Màrquez (eds.), Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 4975–4989. Florence: Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Miestamo, Matti, Kaius Sinnemäki & Fred Karlsson
(eds.) 2008Language complexity: Typology, contact, change (Studies in Language Companion Series 94). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mikolov, Tomas, Ilya Sutskever, Kai Chen, Greg Corrado & Jeffrey Dean
2013Distributed representations of words and phrases and their compositionality. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 261. 3111–3119.Google Scholar
Moscoso del Prado, Fermin
2011The mirage of morphological complexity. In Laura Carlson, Christoph Hoelscher & Thomas F. Shipley (eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 3524–3529. Austin: Cognitive Science Society.Google Scholar
Mufwene, Salikoko S., Christophe Coupé & François Pellegrino
2017Complexity in language: Developmental and evolutionary perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nercesian, Verónica
2014Wordhood and the interplay of linguistic levels in synthetic languages. An empirical study on Wichi (Mataguayan, Gran Chaco). Morphology 241. 177–198. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Newman, Paul
2003Hausa and the Chadic languages. In Bernard Comrie (ed.) The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, 177–192. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Nichols, Johanna & Christian Bentz
2019Morphological complexity of languages reflects the settlement history of the Americas. In Katerina Harvati, Gerhard Jäger & Hugo Reyes-Centeno (eds.). New perspectives on the peopling of the Americas, 13–26. Tübingen: Kerns Verlag.Google Scholar
Oh, Yoon Mi
2015Linguistic complexity and information: Quantitative approaches. Lyon: University of Lyon Ph.D. dissertation.
Oh, Yoon Mi, Christophe Coupé, Egidio Marsico & François Pellegrino
2015Bridging phonological system and lexicon: Insights from a corpus study of functional load. Journal of Phonetics 531. 153–176. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Paschen, Ludger, François Delafontaine, Christoph Draxler, Susanne Fuchs, Matthew Stave & Frank Seifart
2020Building a time-aligned cross-linguistic reference corpus from language documentation data (DoReCo). In Nicoletta Calzolari, Frédéric Béchet, Philippe Blache, Khalid Choukri, Christopher Cieri, Thierry Declerck, Sara Goggi, Hitoshi Isahara, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Hélène Mazo, Asuncion Moreno, Jan Odijk & Stelios Piperidis (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2020), 2657–2666. Marseille: European Language Resources Association.Google Scholar
Pellegrino, François, Christophe Coupé & Egidio Marsico
2011A cross-language perspective on speech information rate. Language 87(3). 539–558. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pimentel, Tiago, Brian Roark & Ryan Cotterell
2020Phonotactic complexity and its trade-offs. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 81. 1–18. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pimentel, Tiago, Clara Meister, Elizabeth Salesky, Simone Teufel, Damián Blasi & Ryan Cotterell
2021A surprisal–duration trade-off across and within the world’s languages. In Marie-Francine Moens, Xuanjing Huang, Lucia Specia & Scott Wen-tau Yih (eds.), Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 949–962. Punta Cana: Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ponti, Edoardo Maria, Helen O’Horan, Yevgeni Berzak, Ivan Vulić, Roi Reichart, Thierry Poibeau, Ekaterina Shutova & Anna Korhonen
2019Modeling language variation and universals: A survey on typological linguistics for natural language processing. Computational Linguistics 45(3). 559–601. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Radford, Alec, Jeffrey Wu, Rewon Child, David Luan, Dario Amodei & Ilya Sutskever
2019Language models are unsupervised multitask learners. OpenAI blog 1(8). 9.Google Scholar
Rust, Phillip, Jonas Pfeiffer, Ivan Vulić, Sebastian Ruder & Iryna Gurevych
2020How good is your tokenizer? On the monolingual performance of multilingual language models. arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.15613. Available at: (last access 2 December 2022). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schrimpf, Martin, Idan Asher Blank, Greta Tuckute, Carina Kauf, Eghbal A. Hosseini, Nancy Kanwisher, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Evelina Fedorenko
2021The neural architecture of language: Integrative reverse-engineering converges on a model for predictive processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118(45). e2105646118. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Shosted, Ryan K.
2006Correlating complexity: A typological approach. Linguistic Typology 10(1). 1–40. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sinnemäki, Kaius & Di Garbo, Francesca
2018Language structures may adapt to the sociolinguistic environment, but it matters what and how you count: A typological study of verbal and nominal complexity. Frontiers in Psychology 91. 1141. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Thomason, Sarah Grey & Terrence Kaufman
1992Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Thornell, Christina
1997The Sango language and its lexicon (Sêndâ-yângâ tî sängö). Vol. 321. Lund: Lund University.Google Scholar
Trudgill, Peter
2001Contact and simplification: Historical baggage and directionality in linguistic change. Linguistic Typology 5(2). 371–374.Google Scholar
2011Sociolinguistic typology: Social determinants of linguistic complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Vaswani, Ashish, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Jakob Uszkoreit, Llion Jones, Aidan N. Gomez, Lukasz Kaiser & Illia Polosukhin
2017Attention is all you need. Advances in neural information processing systems 301. 6000–6010.Google Scholar
Vera, Javier & Wenceslao Palma
2020Laplacian spectrum approach to linguistic complexity: A case study on indigenous languages of the Americas. Europhysics Letters 129(5). 58003. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
von Prince, Kilu & Vera Demberg
2018POS tag perplexity as a measure of syntactic complexity. In Alekandrs Berdicevskis & Christian Bentz (eds.), Proceedings of the First Shared Task on Measuring Language Complexity, 20–25. Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Google Scholar
Wedel, Andrew, Abby Kaplan & Scott Jackson
2013High functional load inhibits phonological contrast loss: A corpus study. Cognition 128(2). 179–186. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wilcox, Ethan Gotlieb, Jon Gauthier, Jennifer Hu, Peng Qian & Roger Levy
2020On the predictive power of neural language models for human real-time comprehension behavior. In Stephanie Denison, Michael Mack, Yang Xu & Blair C. Armstrong (eds.), Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 1707–1713. Cognitive Science Society.Google Scholar
Wolf, Thomas, Lysandre Debut, Victor Sanh, Julien Chaumond, Clement Delangue, Anthony Moi, Pierric Cistac, Tim Rault, Remi Louf, Morgan Funtowicz, Joe Davison, Sam Shleifer, Patrick von Platen, Clara Ma, Yacine Jernite, Julien Plu, Canwen Xu, Teven Le Scao, Sylvain Gugger, Mariama Drame, Quentin Lhoest & Alexander Rush
2020Transformers: State-of-the-art natural language processing. In Qun Liu & David Schlangen (eds.) Proceedings of the 2020 conference on empirical methods in natural language processing: System demonstrations, 38–45. Association for Computational Linguistics. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wray, Alison & George W. Grace
2007The consequences of talking to strangers: Evolutionary corollaries of socio-cultural influences on linguistic form. Lingua 117(3). 543–578. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wu, Shang-Yu, Rei-Jane Huang & I-Fang Tsai
2019The applicability of D, MTLD, and MATTR in Mandarin–speaking children. Journal of Communication Disorders 771. 71–79. DOI logoGoogle Scholar