Primary resourses

Nineteenth Century African American English
William Francis Allen, b.
1830Slave Songs of the United States, pub. 1867 New York NY: A. Simpson & Co.Google Scholar
William Wells Brown, b.
1814?Narrative of William W. Brown, an American Slave written by Himself, pub. 1849 London: C. Gilpin.Google Scholar
Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, b.
1873The Battle-Ground, pub. 1902 New York NY: Doubleday, Page & Co.Google Scholar
Will N. Harben, b.
1858Northern Georgia Sketches, pub. 1900 Chicago IL: A.C. McClurg & Co.Google Scholar
Nineteenth Non-African American English
Sherwood Bonner, b.
1849Dialect Tales, pub. 1883 New York NY: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
Joel Chandler Harris, b.
1848Uncle Remus, His Songs and His Sayings: The Folk-Lore of the Old Plantation, pub 1881 New York NY: D. Appleton and Company.Google Scholar
Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, b.
1873 “The Battle-Ground,” pub. 1902 New York NY: Doubleday, Page & Co.Google Scholar
John Patterson Green, b.
1845Recollections of the Inhabitants, Localities, Superstitions, and KuKlux Outrages of the Carolinas. By a “Carpet-Bagger” Who Was Born and Lived There, pub. 1880 Publisher unknown.Google Scholar
Ruth McEnery Stuart, b.
1856 In Simpkinsville: Character Tales, pub. 1897 New York NY: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
Present-day African American English
Mink, Meesha and De’nesha Diamond
2008Shameless Hoodwives: A Bentley Manor Tale. New York NY: Simon and SchusterGoogle Scholar
Porter, Connie Rose
2014Imani All Mine. Orlando FL: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
Tyree, Omar
2001Flyy Girl: An Urban Classic Novel. New York NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Whitaker, Tu-Shonda
2008The Ex-Factor. London: One World.Google Scholar
Anderwald, Lieselotte
2002Negation in Non-standard British English: Gaps, Regularization and Asymmetries. New York NY: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bailey, Guy & Maynor, Natalie
1989The divergence controversy. American Speech 64(1): 12–39. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baugh, John
1988Langauge and race. Some implications for linguistic science. In Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey, IV: Language: The Socio-cultural Context, Frederick J. Newmeyer (ed.), 64–74. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Butters, Ron
1989The Death of Black English: Divergence and Convergence in Black and White Vernaculars. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Bybee, Joan L.
2010Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: CUP. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bybee, Joan L. & Eddington, David
2006A usage-based approach to Spanish verbs of ‘becoming’. Language 82: 323–355. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bybee, Joan L., Perkins, Revere & Pagliuca, William
1994The evolution of grammar: Tense, Aspect and Modality in the Languages of the World. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Bybee, Joan L.
2006From usage to grammar: The mind’s response to repetition. Language 82(4): 711–733. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cheshire, Jenny
1981Variation in the use of ain’t in an urban British English dialect. Language in Society 10(3): 365–381. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
DeBose, Charles E.
1994A note on ain’t versus didn’t negation in African American Vernacular. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 9(1): 127–130. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
DeBose, Charles E. & Faraclas, Nick
1993An Africanist approach to the linguistic study of Black English: Getting ot the roots of the tense-aspect-modality and copula systems in Afro-American. In Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties, Salikoko S. Mufwene (ed.), 364–387. Athens GA: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
Donauer, Trish & Katz, Seth
2015Ain’thology: The History and Life of a Taboo Word. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
Fasold, Ralph & Wolfram, Walt
1975Some linguistic features of the Negro dialect. In Black American English. Its Background and its Usage in the Schools and in Literature, Paul Stoller (ed.), 49–89. New York NY: Dell.Google Scholar
Feagin, Crawford
1979Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
von der Gabelentz, George
1891Die Sprachwissenschaft. Ihre Auggaben, Methoden, und bisherigen Ergebnisse. Leipzig: Weigel.Google Scholar
Gil, David
2009How much grammar does it take to sail a boat? In Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable, Geoffrey Sampson, David Gil & Peter Trudgill (eds), 19–49. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Givȯn, Talmy
1975Serial verbs and syntactic change: Niger-Congo. In Word Order and Word Order Change, Charles Li (ed.), 890–925. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Green, Lisa
2002African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. London: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hopper, Paul
1991On some properties of grammaticization. In Approaches to Grammaticalization, Vol. 1 [Typological Studies in Language 19:1], Elizabeth Traugott & Bernd Heine (eds.), 17–36. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1987Emergent grammar. Berkeley Linguistics Society 13: 139–157. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hopper, Paul & Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
2003Grammaticalization. Cambridge: CUP. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Howe, Darin M.
1997Negation in the history of African American English. Language Variation and Change 9(2): 267–294. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Howe, Darin, M. & Walker, James A.
2000Negation and the creole-origins hypothesis: Evidence from early African American English. In The English history of African American English, Shana Poplack (ed.), 109–140. Malden MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Jespersen, Otto
1940A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles, Part V Copenhagen: Eijnar Munksgaard.Google Scholar
Johnson, Keith
1997Speech perception without speaker normalization. In Talker Variability in Speech Processing, Keith Johnson & John W. Mullennix (eds), 145–165. San Diego CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Kuryłowicz, Jerzy
1975[1965]The evolution of grammatical categories. Reprinted in Jerzy Kuryłowicz 1976, Esquisses linguistiques, Vol. 2, 38–54. Munich: Fink.Google Scholar
Labov, William
1985The increasing divergence of Black and White vernacular English. In African-American English: Structure, History and Use, Salikoko Mufwene, John Rickford, Guy Bailey & John Baugh (eds), 110–153. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
1972Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
McDavid, Raven I.
1941Ain’t I and aren’t I. Language 17: 57–59. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mufwene, Salikoko S.
2004Gullah: Morphology and syntax. In A Handbook of Varieties of English: Morphology and Syntax, Bernd Kortmann, Kate Burridge, Rajend Mesthrie, Edgar W. Schneider & Clive Upton (eds), 356–373. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Palacios Martinez, Ignacio M.
2010“It ain’t nothing to do with my school.” Variation and pragmatic uses of ain’t in the language of British English teenagers. English Studies 91(5): 548–566. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Payne, Thomas E.
2010Understanding English Grammar. Oxford: OUP. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Poplack, Shana
2000The English History of African American English. Malden MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Radford, Andrew
1997Syntax: A Minimalist Introduction. Cambridge: CUP. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rickford, John R.
1977The Question of Prior Creolization of Black English. In Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, Albert Valdman (ed.). Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
1992Grammatical variation and divergence in Vernacular Black English. In Internal and External Factors in Syntactic Change, Marinel Gerritsen & Dieter Stein (eds), 175–200. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sampson, Geoffrey, Gil, David & Trudgill, Peter
(eds) 2009Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Sebba, Mark
2004British Creole: Morphology and syntax. In Bernd Kortmann, Kate Burridge, Rajend Mesthrie, Edgar W. Schneider and Clive Upton (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English: Morphology and syntax. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 196–208.Google Scholar
Singler, John
1998What not new in AAVE. American Speech 73(3): 227–256. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Slobin, Dan I.
2003Language and thought online: Cognitive consequences of linguistic relativity. In D. Gentner and S. Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in mind: Advances in the study of language and thought. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Smith, K. Aaron
2006The universal tendency for renewal among grammatical expression for anterior and related aspect. Journal of Universal Language 7: 139–160. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2009The history of be fixing to: Grammaticization, sociolinguisitc distribution and emerging literary spaces. English Today 97:25(1): 12–18. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2015Historical development and aspectual nuances of ain’t periphrases. In Ain’thology: The History and Life of a Taboo Word, Trish Donauer & Seth Katz (eds), 72–94. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
Stevens, Martin
1954The derivation of ain’t. American Speech 29(5): 196–201. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
2002From etymology to historical pragmatics. In Studies in the History of the English Language, Donka Minkova & Robert Stockwell (eds), 19–49. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Trudgill, Peter
2011Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Walker, James
2005The ain’t constraint: Not-contraction in early African American English. Language Change and Variation 17: 1–17. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Weldon, Tracey
1994Variability in negation in African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change 6(3): 359–397. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Weldon, Tracey L.
2007Gullah negation: A variable analysis. American Speech 82(4): 341–366. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wolfram, Walt & Schilling-Estes, Natalie
2003Language change in “conservative” dialects: The case of past tense BE in southern enclave communities. American Speech 78(2): 208–227. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2006American English. Malden MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar