This study examines the actual amount of maternal language input received by young bilingual versus matched monolingual children. All mothers had always addressed their children in Dutch. The bilingual children in addition heard French from other caregivers since they were born. Analyses are based on video recordings of mother-child interaction when children were 13 and 20 months old. There was considerable interindividual variation amongst mothers in how much they talked with their children, regardless of whether mothers were part of a bilingual family or not. Based on analyses of 13 measures of input frequency, no differences emerged in the quantity of language input between mothers in bilingual and monolingual families. A number of bilingual children heard more Dutch from their mothers than children in monolingual families did. This study, likely the first to compare mothers in matched bilingual and monolingual families and to empirically compare maternal input, thus finds no evidence of reduced (maternal) language input for bilingual children. Instead, the absolute amount of maternal language input varied considerably for both bilingual and monolingual children. The study of this variation holds great potential for a better understanding of the underpinnings of bilingual children's language development.
(2007) The future of Inuktitut in the face of majority languages: Bilingualism or language shift?Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 515-536.
(2009) The status of the “weaker” language in unbalanced French/German bilingual language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 177-192.
Bornstein, M.H., & Bornstein, L.
(2008) Psychological stability. In W.A. Darity, Jr. (Ed.), International encyclopedia of social sciences (2nd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 74-75). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.
Bornstein, M.H., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Haynes, M.O.
(1999) First words in the second year: Continuity, stability, and models of concurrent and predictive correspondence in vocabulary and verbal responsiveness across age and context. Infant Behavior and Development, 22, 65-85.
(1970) The neglected situation in child language research and education. In F. Williams (Ed.), Language and poverty (pp. 81-101). Chicago: Markham Publishing Company.
Chan, W.H., & Nicoladis, E.
(2010) Predicting two Mandarin-English bilingual children's first 50 words: Effects of frequency and relative exposure in the input. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14, 237-270.
De Houwer, A.
(1990) The acquisition of two languages from birth: A case study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
De Houwer, A.
(1997) The role of input in the acquisition of past verb forms in English and Dutch: Evidence from a bilingual child. In E. Clark (Ed.), Proceedings of the 28th Stanford Child Language Research Forum (pp. 153-162), Stanford: CSLI.
De Houwer, A.
(2000) Children's linguistic environments: A first impression. In M. Beers, B. van den Bogaerde, G. Bol, J. de Jong, & C. Rooijmans (Eds.), From sound to sentence: Studies on first language acquisition (pp. 57-68).Groningen: Centre for Language and Cognition.
De Houwer, A.
(2009) Bilingual first language acquisition. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
De Houwer, A.
(2011) Language input environments and language development in bilingual acquisition. Applied Linguistics Review, 2, 221-240.
(2010) Dual language development in preschool children. In E.E. García & E.C. Frede (Eds.), Young English Language Learners: Current research and emerging directions for practice and policy (pp. 59-79). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Hart, B., & Risley, T.
(1995) Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Señor, M., & Parra, M.
(2012) Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39, 1-27.
(1975) The four-factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University.
Hurtado, N., Grüter, T., Marchman, V.A., & Fernald, A.
(2014) Relative language exposure, processing efficiency and vocabulary in Spanish–English bilingual toddlers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 189-202.
(2000) The CHILDES project. Tools for analyzing talk. (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Marchman, V.A., Fernald, A., & Hurtado, N.
(2010) How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 37, 817-840.
(1989) Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In K. Hyltenstam & L. Obler (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan. Aspects of acquisition, maturity and loss (pp. 13-40). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
(1993) The weaker language in bilingual Swedish-French children. In K. Hyltenstam & A. Viberg (Eds.), Progression and regression in language: Sociocultural, neuropsychological and linguistic perspectives (pp. 289-308). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Silva-Corvalán, C., & Montanari, S.
(2008) The acquisition of ser, estar (and be) by a Spanish-English bilingual child. The early stages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 341-360.
Song, L., Tamis-LeMonda, C.S., Yoshikawa, H., Kahana-Kalman, R., & Wu, I.
(2012) Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1106-1123.
(2000) Language input and word discovery. In M. Beers, B. van den Bogaerde, G. Bol, J. de Jong, & C. Rooijmans (Eds.), From sound to sentence: Studies on first language acquisition (pp. 155-162). Groningen, Netherlands: Centre for Language and Cognition.
van de Weijer, J.
(2002) How much does an infant hear in a day? In J. Costa & M. João Freitas (Eds.), Proceedings of the GALA2001 Conference on Language Acquisition (pp. 279-282). Lisboa, Portugal: Associação Portuguesa de Linguistíca.
Cited by 15 other publications
Binks, Hanna L. & Enlli Môn Thomas
2023. Welsh–English bilingual adolescents’ performance on verbal analogy and verbal classification tasks: the role of language exposure and use on vocabulary knowledge. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism► pp. 1 ff.
Cantone, Katja F.
2022. Language exposure in early bilingual and trilingual acquisition. International Journal of Multilingualism 19:3 ► pp. 402 ff.
2015. Harmonious bilingual development: Young families’ well-being in language contact situations. International Journal of Bilingualism 19:2 ► pp. 169 ff.
De Houwer, Annick & Marc H. Bornstein
2016. Bilingual mothers’ language choice in child-directed speech: continuity and change. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 37:7 ► pp. 680 ff.
Dosi, Ifigeneia & Gerakini Douka
2021. Effects of language proficiency and contextual factors on second language learners’ written narratives: A corpus-based study. International Journal of Research Studies in Education 10:5
Haft, Stephanie L., Christopher L. Gys, Silvia Bunge, Yuuko Uchikoshi & Qing Zhou
2022. Home Language Environment and Executive Functions in Mexican American and Chinese American Preschoolers in Head Start. Early Education and Development 33:4 ► pp. 608 ff.
2018. Bilingual Development in Children of Immigrant Families. Child Development Perspectives 12:2 ► pp. 80 ff.
King, Marika, Nicole Lim & MaryAnn Romski
2021. Language experience, cognitive skills, and English and Spanish semantic abilities in bilingual children with typical development and language impairments. International Journal of Bilingualism 25:5 ► pp. 1263 ff.
Kupisch, Tanja, Sergio Miguel Pereira Soares, Eloi Puig‐Mayenco & Jason Rothman
2021. Multilingualism and Chomsky's Generative Grammar. In A Companion to Chomsky, ► pp. 232 ff.
Marchman, Virginia A., Lucía Z. Martínez, Nereyda Hurtado, Theres Grüter & Anne Fernald
2017. Caregiver talk to young Spanish‐English bilinguals: comparing direct observation and parent‐report measures of dual‐language exposure. Developmental Science 20:1
2017. The relationship between first language (L1) and second language (L2) lexical development in young Turkish-German children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 20:2 ► pp. 218 ff.
2017. Family language policy and school language choice: pathways to bilingualism and multilingualism in a Canadian context. International Journal of Multilingualism 14:4 ► pp. 378 ff.
Usanova, Irina & Birger Schnoor
2021. Exploring multiliteracies in multilingual students: Profiles of multilingual writing skills. Bilingual Research Journal 44:1 ► pp. 56 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 9 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.